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研究生:林國偉
研究生(外文):Kuo-Wei Lin
論文名稱:飼料蛋白質品質對海鱺幼魚成長的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Dietary Protein Quality on the Growth of Juvenile Cobia Rachycentron canadum
指導教授:陳宏遠陳宏遠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Houng-Yung Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:魚粉血粉海鱺蛋白質營養胺基酸
外文關鍵詞:blood mealamino acidfish mealproteincobianutrition
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本論文以兩次實驗來探討飼料蛋白質品質對海鱺幼魚成長的影響,實驗一探討蒸煮乾燥血粉及噴霧乾燥血粉在海鱺飼料中的最高使用量,實驗二探討不同的胺基酸處理方式對海鱺胺基酸利用的影響。實驗一以蒸煮乾燥血粉部分取代飼料中的魚粉,取代量分別為魚粉蛋白質的0、10、20、30及40%,另在取代量為20與40%者,分別添加飼料量0.1及0.2%的結晶甲硫胺酸,及在相同取代量下(20與40%),以噴霧乾燥血粉取代部分魚粉,共有九種實驗飼料。以初重約72克的海鱺幼魚進行八週之飼育,結果發現蒸煮乾燥血粉的取代量從20%增加到30%時,魚體的增重率、特定生長速率、飼料轉換率、蛋白質效率和淨蛋白質利用率均顯著劣化 (P<0.05);噴霧乾燥血粉在高取代量 (40%) 時優於蒸煮乾燥血粉,但在低取代量 (20%) 時並無不同;添加結晶甲硫胺酸來平衡胺基酸並無正面效果,反而降低成長。實驗二共有八種實驗飼料,其一為全魚粉的未取代控制組,其餘各實驗飼料均以蒸煮乾燥血粉部分取代飼料中的魚粉,取代量均為魚粉蛋白質的30%,並在其中三種實驗飼料分別添加:(1)結晶甲硫胺酸,(2)結晶甲硫胺酸及異白胺酸,(3)結晶甲硫胺酸、異白胺酸及精胺酸;另二種實驗飼料添加以glycerol monostearate微膠囊化的:(1)微膠囊甲硫胺酸,(2)微膠囊甲硫胺酸及異白胺酸;及在另二種實驗飼料添加以cellulose acetate phthalate為包衣的:(1)微包衣甲硫胺酸,(2)微包衣甲硫胺酸及異白胺酸。以初重約33克的海鱺幼魚進行八週之飼育,結果發現在蒸煮乾燥血粉取代部分魚粉並添加胺基酸的各試驗組,其增重率、特定生長速率、飼料轉換率、蛋白質效率和淨蛋白質利用率均顯著低於未取代控制組 (P<0.05)。因此,蒸煮乾燥血粉可以有效取代飼料中的部分魚粉,最高取代量為魚粉蛋白質的20%,即飼料量的6.2%;噴霧乾燥血粉在高取代量時,優於蒸煮乾燥血粉,但在低取代量時並無不同;而且海鱺無法有效利用本實驗中添加的各種型式胺基酸。
Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary protein quality on the growth of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum. Experiment I was to find out the maximum level of steam dried blood meal and spray dried blood meal can be used in the diet for juvenile cobia. Experiment II examined how juvenile cobia utilizes supplemental amino acids. In Experiment I, 9 test diets were evaluated. In the first group, steam dried blood meal was used to partially replace fish meal. The replacement levels were 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of the fish meal protein. In the second group, crystalline methionine, which was 0.1 and 0.2% of the diets, was added respectively to 2 diets in which 20 and 40% of the fish meal protein was replaced by blood meal. In the third group, spray dried blood meal was used to replace fish meal protein at 20 and 40% instead of steam dried blood meal. Juvenile cobia with an initial weight of 72g were fed with the test diets for 8 weeks. The results showed that the percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein utilization ratio (NPU) were significantly reduced (P<0.05) when the replacement level was increased from 20% to 30%. Spray dried blood meal was more effectively than steam dried blood meal was at high replacement level (40%) than low replacement level (20%). Supplementation of crystalline methionine in the cobia diet had no positive effects. In Experiment II, 8 test diets were studied. The control diet contained only fish meal as the sole protein source. The other seven diets all contained steam dried blood meal which replaced 30% of fish meal protein. In the first group of 3 diets, (1) crystalline methionine, (2) crystalline methionine and crystalline isoleucine, (3) crystalline methionine, crystalline isoleucine and crystalline arginine were added, respectively. Two diets were supplemented with (1) microencapsulated (glycerol monostearate) methionine, (2) microencapsulated methionine and microencapsulated isoleucine. Two diets were supplemented with (1) microcoated (cellulose acetate phthalate) methionine, (2) microcoated methionine and microcoated isoleucine. Juvenile cobia with an initial weight of 33g were fed with the test diets for 8 weeks. The results showed that when the fish meal was partially replaced and amino acids were added, the PWG, SGR, FCR, PER and NPU of the cobia were significantly reduced compared to the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, steam dried blood meal could effectively replace fish meal up to 20% of the fish meal protein, which was 6.2% of the diet. Spray dried blood meal showed better effects on the growth of fish than steam dried blood meal when given at high level. The two types of blood meal were no difference when the replacement levels were low. Juvenile cobia were not able to effectively use the different types of amino acids evaluated in the experiments.
文獻整理……………………………………………………………… 1
實驗一、飼料中添加血粉對海鱺幼魚成長的影響………………… 12
摘要…………………………………………………………………… 13
前言…………………………………………………………………… 14
材料與方法…………………………………………………………… 15
結果…………………………………………………………………… 28
討論…………………………………………………………………… 42
實驗二、含血粉飼料中添加胺基酸對海鱺幼魚成長的影響……… 45
摘要…………………………………………………………………… 46
前言…………………………………………………………………… 47
材料與方法…………………………………………………………… 48
結果…………………………………………………………………… 54
討論…………………………………………………………………… 67
結論…………………………………………………………………… 70
參考文獻……………………………………………………………… 71
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