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研究生:廖如君
研究生(外文):Ru-chun Liao
論文名稱:飼料添加核苷酸對點帶石斑稚魚健康之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of dietary supplemental nucleotides on the health of juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides
指導教授:陳宏遠陳宏遠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Houng-Yung Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:點帶石斑食源性核苷組織切片免疫力感染試驗小腸黏膜成長
外文關鍵詞:Intestinal foldEpinephelus coioidesimmune responseHistological sectiongrowthdietary nucleotides
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本研究探討飼料中添加不同濃度的核苷酸對點帶石斑魚 (Epinephelus coioides)成長、小腸黏膜之分化、免疫力及對細菌感染的抵抗力之影響。所添加的核苷酸為AMP、GMP、CMP、UMP 和IMP的等量混合物,添加濃度分別為0、0.05、0.2及0.4 g/100g diet。研究分為二部分進行,實驗一中,初重為13.4g石斑稚魚經14週飼育,魚體增重(519-616%) 並沒有顯著不同,核苷酸的添加對血球性狀及血清天門冬胺酸、總蛋白、白蛋白、球蛋白、白蛋白球蛋白比及膽固醇均無顯著 (P>0.05) 影響,添加0.4 g/100g 組血清總膽色素濃度顯著高於0 g/100g及0.05 g/100g組 。石斑魚之巨噬細胞吞噬能力、巨噬細胞O2- 生產量及血清溶菌酵素活性也無明顯差異。組織學切片顯示0.2 g/100g組的小腸絨毛高度顯著高於0.4g/100g組,但核苷酸添加對小腸肌肉層厚度並未造成顯著差異。實驗二中飼育石斑魚3週及18週後,以Photobacterium damsela subsp. damselae進行人工感染,當核苷酸含量為0、0.05、0.2及0.4 g/100g diet,其相對存活率 (relative percent survival, RPS) 分別為87.8、91.1、90.0及94.4%; 餵食18週之相對存活率為74.5、82.4、86.3及85.3%,各組並無顯著差異,但隨著核苷酸添加濃度增加而增加。因此,當飼料蛋白質含量為38%時,飼料中額外添加核苷酸對點帶石斑稚魚成長並無幫助,而對多項生理免疫能力及抗菌則有相當的影響。
Dietary effects of a nucleotide mixture that contained AMP、GMP、CMP、UMP and IMP in equivalent amount were evaluated in 4 supplemental levels of 0, 0.05, 0.2, and 0.4 g/100g diet. Weight gain (519-616%) of juvenile groupers fed for 14 weeks with the test diets was not significantly affected by the supplements. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, and cholesterol, A/G ratio and activities of AST were also not significantly affected. Serum total bilirubin concentration in the 0.4 g/100g group was significantly higher than the 0 or 0.05 g/100g group. Head-kidney macrophage phagocytosis and intracellular superoxide anion production as well as serum lysozyme activity were also not different among treatments. Histological sections of fish gut indicated that villous heights of intestinal fold were significantly greater in the 0.2g/100g group than the 0.4 g/100g group, muscle layer thickness, in contrast, was not affected. When challenged with Photobacterium damsela subsp. damselae after fed the test for 3 weeks, relative percent survivals of the groupers were 87.8, 91.1, 90.0 and 94.4% (0, 0.05, 0.2, and 0.4 g/100g diet, respectively). The survivals were 74.5, 82.4, 86.3, and 85.3%, respectively when the feeding trial was extended to 18 weeks. The results show that a diet containg 38% protein and asupplemented with nucleotides at the tested levels was not effective in promoting growth, but was moderately effective in enhancing immune responses and pathogen resistance of juvenile grouper.
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………….. Ⅰ
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………. Ⅱ
目錄…………………………………………………………………………. Ⅲ
表目錄………………………………………………………………………. Ⅳ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………. Ⅵ
附錄…………………………………………………………………………. VⅡ
文獻整理…………………………………………………………………….. 1
前言…………………………………………………………………………. 20
材料與方法…………………………………………………………………. 22
結果…………………………………………………………………………. 41
討論………………………………………………………………………… 60
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………… 65
附錄………………………………………………………………………… 72
表次 頁數
表一、核苷酸命名…………………………………………………………… 2
表二、食源性核苷酸在人類和動物的作用………………………………… 11
表三、基礎飼料之百分組成………………………………………………… 24
表四、蛋白源魚粉及酪蛋白之粗成分組成………………………………… 25
表五、礦物質預拌劑之組成………………………………………………… 26
表六、維生素預拌劑成分與純度…………………………………………… 27
表七、飼料添加核苷酸混合物含量及組成………………………………… 28
表八、飼料添加核苷酸混合物實驗之飼料一般成分分析………………… 29
表九、點帶石斑魚餵食不同核苷酸混合物添加量的飼料14週後之總重、
增重率 、飼料轉換率、肝體比和特定成長速率………………….. 42
表十、餵食不同核苷酸混合物添加量的飼料14週後點帶巴石斑之魚體組
成份…………………………………………………………………… 44
表十一、餵食不同核苷酸混合物添加量的飼料14週後點帶石班魚血液中
紅血球數、血球容積比、平均血球體積、血色素濃度、白血球
數、淋巴球數、顆粒球數、嗜中性球數………………………… 45
表十二、餵食不同核苷酸混合物添加量的飼料14週後點帶石斑魚的血清
總蛋白質、白蛋白、球蛋白濃度和白蛋白球蛋白比………….. 46
表十三、餵食不同核苷酸混合物添加量的飼料14週後點帶石斑魚的血清
天門冬胺酸轉胺酵素活性、丙胺酸轉胺酵素活性、膽固醇、總
膽色素濃度………………………………………………………...... 47
表十四、餵食不同核苷酸混合物添加量的飼料14週後,點帶石斑魚不同
的小腸區段的絨毛相對高度和肌肉層厚度之4×3雙向變方分析
及鄧肯式多變距測驗法之結果………………………………….... 49
表十五、餵食不同核苷酸添加量的飼料14週後點帶石班魚的巨噬細胞內
超氧陰離子濃度…………………………………………………… 52
表十六、點帶石斑餵飼不同核苷酸含量飼料十四週後對其巨噬細胞吞噬
力之影響…………………………………………………………… 53
表十七、餵食不同核苷酸添加量的飼料3週後點帶石班魚血清溶菌酵素
活性………………………………………………………………… 54
表十八、餵食不同核苷酸混合物添加量的飼料3週後,以
Photobacterium damsela subsp. damselae感染時點帶石斑魚之存
活率………………………………………………………………… 56
表十九、餵食不同核苷酸混合物添加量的飼料18週後,以
Photobacterium damsela subsp. damselae感染時點帶石斑魚之存
活率………………………………………………………………… 57
圖次 頁數
圖一、體內核苷酸的吸收轉換及降解路徑………………………………… 4
圖二、嘌呤和嘧啶鹼基上各種原子的生合成來源.................... 5
圖三、嘌呤生合成路徑圖........................................ 6
圖四、嘧啶生合成路徑圖………………………………………………….. 7
圖五、食物中添加與未添加核苷酸,調節腸細胞的核苷酸循環池…….. 8
圖六、核酸及其相關衍生物之消化與吸收………………………………… 10
圖七、小腸組織的測量………………………………………………………. 31
圖八、點帶石斑魚餵飼不同核苷酸含量飼料十四週之增重曲線………… 41
圖九、餵食不同核苷酸混合物添加量的飼料14週後,在不同的小腸
區段的絨毛相對高度………………………………………………… 48
圖十、餵食不同核苷酸混合物添加量的飼料14週後,在不同的小腸
區段的肌肉層厚度…………………………………………………… 49
圖十一、餵食不同核苷酸添加量的飼料處理後點帶石斑魚血清溶菌酵
素、巨噬細胞超氧陰離子產生量及吞噬活性…………………… 54
圖十二、餵食不同核苷酸混合物添加量的飼料3週後,以
Photobacterium damsela subsp. damselae感染時點帶石斑魚之
累計死亡率………………………………………………………… 57
圖十三、餵食不同核苷酸混合物添加量的飼料18週後,以
Photobacterium damsela subsp. damselae感染時點帶石斑魚之
累計死亡率………………………………………………………… 58
附錄一、餵食不同核苷酸混合物添加量的飼料14週後,在不同的小腸區段的絨毛相對高度和肌肉層厚度…………………………………. 72
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