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研究生:江愛蘋
研究生(外文):Ai-Ping Chiang
論文名稱:台灣西南海域沉積物中底棲性有孔蟲的分佈
論文名稱(外文):Living (Rose Bengal Stained) Benthic Foraminifera in Sediments off the Southwest Taiwan
指導教授:林慧玲林慧玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hui-Ling Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋地質及化學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:高屏峽谷底棲性有孔蟲染色群落分析
外文關鍵詞:stainedKao-ping Submarine CanyonClusters analysisbenthic foraminifera
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:9
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本論文研究目的係藉由有孔蟲細胞質的染色處理,針對台灣西南海域的沉積物樣品,探討現生底棲性有孔蟲種屬組合與當地沉積環境的關係。
高屏峽谷附近表層沉積物中底棲性有孔蟲現生種屬和總殼體數量與採樣站位的水深及表層沉積物的TOC含量沒有明顯的相關性。經由底棲性有孔蟲的L/T ratio計算,顯示高屏峽谷內部的底棲性有孔蟲組合並不是長久以來持續棲息於當地的種屬。而利用群落分析方法將高屏峽谷附近的底棲性有孔蟲分佈趨勢分為兩種分佈型態:一為淺內生種-深內生種種屬組合,分佈於高屏外海及南邊陸棚;其二為與表生種-淺內生種種屬組合,大多分佈在近岸的站位,且峽谷內部的種屬和峽谷南北兩側的大陸棚區相似,說明高屏峽谷內部的底棲性有孔蟲很有可能是受外力影響被動的搬運而來。同時高屏峽谷南北兩坡的歧異度均有向外海遞減的趨勢,相對於近岸的站位較高的歧異度量化指數,峽谷內部的歧異度與種屬均勻度呈現較低,顯示當地環境的變化不利於底棲生物的生存。經由多種不同方式的比較與討論均顯示,高屏峽谷內部的底棲性有孔蟲有可能是受到峽谷內部複雜的潮汐與流相互作用的影響而遷移。離高屏峽谷最遠的深水站位有許多較大的有孔蟲殼體、陳舊的殼體、大型顆粒以及破片,沉積物可能來自高屏溪口經由高屏峽谷往外海輸送;也有可能是來自其他地區,隨著海流的傳輸而來。
利用沉積物中超量210Pb定年結果配合有孔蟲豐度變化,估計約在30年前(1973年)底棲性有孔蟲Ammonia豐度明顯減少,是否是受到沉積物中環境污染的影響則需藉進一步的分析確認。
The objective for this study was to provide the insight into the link between benthic foraminiferal assemblages and the surrounding environment. Stained sediment samples were collected from the continental shelf and slope off the southwest Taiwan, including the Kao-ping Submarine Canyon. In addition to faunal census, total organic carbon (TOC), carbonate, and coarse fraction of the sediments were also measured. Nevertheless, the downcore record of the excess 210Pb from selected sites offers the constraint for stratigraphy time frame for discussion.
The benthic foraminiferal assemblages were analyzed by statistics. Clusters analysis shows that all species present in this study could be divided into two groupings. One is those distributed in outer shelf and the other is those found in the inner shelf of the southwest Taiwan. Different from previous studies, the spatial distribution of stained benthic foraminifera seems not to be related with TOC contents in the sediment and water depth. Both the diversity index and Eqitability show that sites inside of the canyon have lower values. The higher Living/Total ratios and lower dead tests at the head of Kao-ping Submarine Canyon than adjacent area might be the effect of migration. Furthermore, the species within the canyon are similar to the southern and northern continental shelf. These findings indicate that the spatial distribution of benthic forams within canyon might be the effect of transport, which could result from the complex interaction between tides and currents.
Augmented with the profiles of excess 210Pb, the temporal variation of benthic foraminifera was revealed. Generally there is a progressive decrease in the abundance of Ammonia sp.. It is possible that the diminishing trend was caused by the increase of anthropogenic activity for the last 30 years.
目錄
誌謝…………………….…………….…………………………...…….Ⅰ
中文摘要…………………….…………….…………………………....Ⅱ
英文摘要..……………………….………………...……………………Ⅲ
目錄…………………………………….………..……………………...Ⅳ
圖目錄………………………………………….……………….……....Ⅴ
表目錄……………………………………….…………..……………...Ⅵ
壹、緒論……………………………….………..….……………………1
1-1 前言……………………………………………………………1
1-2 研究區域………………………………………………………6
1-3 前人研究………………………………………………………8
貳、研究料與方法…………………………………………………..…13
2-1 研究材料…………………………………………………..…13
2-2分析方法………………………………………………………16
2-2-1粗顆粒含量分析…………………………………….16
2-2-2總碳、總有機碳及碳酸鈣含量分析..…………………17
2-2-3種屬鑑定與計算豐度……………………………...…18
2-2-4鉛-210活性分析……………………………..………18
2-2-5沉積速率………………………………………………23
參、實驗結果………………………………………..…………………25
3-1各項參數分析結果……………………………………………25
3-1-1粗顆粒含量與總碳、總有機碳及碳酸鈣含量分析…25
3-1-2種屬鑑定與豐度………………………………………32
3-2 L/T ratio計算………………………………………………..37
3-3 群落分析…………………...….………………………….…44
3-3-1 與前人研究比較………………..……………………50
3-4 歧異度………………………………………..………………52
3-5 鉛-210活性分析與計算沉積速率…………………..…......60
肆、討論……………………………………………………...…..……66
4-1 底棲性有孔蟲種屬空間分佈與傳輸方向………………..…66
4-2底棲性有孔蟲隨時間的變化………..………………….…....72
伍、結論…………………………………………………………….….76
陸、參考文獻……………………………………...…..………………78
中文部分……………………...……….……...…..……………...78
英文部分……………………...…………………..………………79
附錄一 各站位底棲性有孔蟲個別種屬鑑定與豐度計屬結果…...…88
圖目錄
圖一 底棲性有孔蟲在沉積物中的垂直分佈與沉積物中的有機碳含量和溶氧之間的關係圖……………………………………………..4
圖二 染色底棲性有孔蟲L/T ratio與總殼體數量分佈趨勢…………..6
圖三 高屏峽谷地理位置圖……………………………………………..7
圖四 高屏峽谷表層流場經由數值模式與現場觀測結果……………..9
圖五 高屏峽谷主軸上及附近海域能量傳輸示意圖………………...10
圖六 研究區域採樣位置圖……………………………………….…14
圖七 沉積物中210Pb理想垂直剖面圖……………………………….22
圖八 各站表層沉積物的參數比較……………………………….…28
圖九 總碳、總有機碳及碳酸鈣含量隨沉積物深度變化結果…….….30
圖十 各站位的染色有孔蟲殼體與總殼體數量、表層沉積物TOC含
量與L/T ratio比較圖…..………………………………………..33
圖十一 底棲性有孔蟲的豐度與沉積物中TOC含量關係圖….…….34
圖十二 各站位表層沉積物中染色底棲性有孔蟲個別種屬與豐度計
算結果3D立體圖…………………………………………….35
圖十三 各站位表層沉積物中染色底棲性有孔蟲個別種屬與豐度計
算結果平面圖…..………………………………….………….36
圖十四 高屏峽谷主軸上底棲性有孔蟲個別種屬的L/T ratio與總殼
體數量關係圖………………………………………..………38
圖十五 底棲性有孔蟲個別種屬的L/T ratio與總殼體數量關係圖..40
圖十六 染色樣品群落分析的結果,大致上可將所有樣品分為3個
群落……………………………………………………………45
圖十七 總樣品群落分析的結果,將所有樣品分為5個群落………..48
圖十八 底棲性有孔蟲的豐度與採樣站位水深的關係圖……………53
圖十九 各站位染色樣品的H’與Equitability分析結果……………57
圖二十 各站位所有樣品的H’與Equitability分析結果………...……59
圖二十一 210Pb活度分析站位圖…………………………….....……61
圖二十二 KP3站、S1站、N2站及TA2站沉積物中超量210Pb活
度垂直分佈圖……………………………..………………62
圖二十三 (a)N3站沉積物中超量210Pb活度垂直分佈圖(b)N3站
ln 210Pb對深度作圖………..……………………………63
圖二十四 N2站與TA2站ln 210Pb對深度作圖………………………64
圖二十五 利用染色群落分析結果,各站位的表生種-淺內生種與淺
內生種-深內生種比例分佈圖…………….…………..67
圖二十六 KP5站的>63�慆樣品……………………………………..70
圖二十七 KP5站發現的大型顆粒、破片及陳舊的有孔蟲殼體...…..70
圖二十八 海流全年平均流向圖……………………………………...71
圖二十九重建N2站岩心的年代與相對應的底棲性有孔蟲豐度
變化……………………………………………....…...……..73
圖三十 N2站岩心Ammonia與Uvigerina豐度隨時間的變化……..75
表目錄
表一 本論文採樣站位資料………………………………………..…...15
表二 各站粗顆粒含量與總碳、總有機碳及碳酸鈣含量分析結果…...26
表三 採樣區域與經由傳輸作用懸浮在水體中的底棲性有孔蟲殼體
大小……………………………………………………………….43
表四 (a)染色樣品群落分析使用編號1-26的底棲有孔蟲種類(b)染
色樣品群落分析結果................................................................47
表五 (a)總樣品群落分析使用編號1-27的底棲有孔蟲種類(b)總樣
品群落分析結果.......................................................................49
表六本文的染色底棲有孔蟲群落分析與前人比較結果........................51
表七 常用的歧異度量化指數…………………………………………….54
表八 染色樣品經由PAST軟體分析的結果………………......………..56
表九 所有樣品經由PAST軟體分析的結果………………………….....58
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