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研究生:紀則賢
研究生(外文):Tse-hsien Chi
論文名稱:高雄愛河水域有機錫分布之研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of the distribution of organotin in the Love River in Kaohsiung
指導教授:王維賢
指導教授(外文):Wei-hsien Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋資源學系研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:有機錫
外文關鍵詞:organotinLove River
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愛河為高雄第一大河,全長十二公里,源於高雄縣仁武鄉八卦寮,自東北而西南匯入高雄港,河道寬度由上游的14公尺逐漸增加至130公尺。由於高雄港中船隻頻繁的往來,添加在船舶底部的有效抗附劑三丁基錫(TBT)會釋放到海水中,造成港口長期以來的有機錫污染。愛河感潮帶遠至中華路的治平橋,極可能受到港口海水的汙染。
本實驗目的是藉分析愛河水質及其沉積物來了解愛河是否被有機錫污染,如果真的有汙染的現象,污染源為何。分析方法是以格林納試劑進行戊基化衍生反應,正己烷萃取濃縮後以氮氣吹拂濃縮,最後濃縮樣品取3μl以GC-FPD分析。
研究結果顯示愛河有機錫的污染以三丁基錫(TBT)與二丁基錫(DBT)為主,河水中TBT的濃度( 29-360 ppt )明顯高於DBT的濃度(0-292 ppt),沉積物則是DBT的含量( 154-68800 ppb )大於TBT
的含量( 3650-30222 ppb )。沉積物中有機錫主要分布在粒徑介於0.053㎜與1.00㎜之間,含量比例為82%-98%。
愛河丁基錫的污染源主要來自港口,但上游部分也有其他來源。苯基錫污染主要來自治平橋上游以及愛河的支流(二號運河)。與其他各國相比,愛河的有機錫污染較為嚴重,水樣中TBT的濃度也超過英國訂定標準 20 ppt,可見有機錫的使用與管制皆有加強的必要性。
Abstract
Love River, the longest river in Kaohsiung City, 12 km in length, originates from Jen-Wu village of Kaohsiung County and goes into Kaohsiung Harbor from the northeast to southwest. Width of the river is increased from 14 m of the upstream to 130 m. Because there were active shipyards and many boats in Kaohsiung Harbor, TBT in paint as biocide to paint the ship will be released into seawater and cause the long-term contamination of organotin. It is possible that Love River may be polluted by the seawater from Kaohsiung Harbor for the intertidal zone of Love River reaches Chih-Ping Bridge.
The goal of the present study is to analyze water and sediment of Love River in order to find out whether Love River has been polluted by organotin and, if yes, where the polluted source is. The samples were derivated with the Grignard reagent(n-pentylmagnesium bromide)and extracted by n-Hexane. Clean samples were concentrated to about 1 ml under a gentle stream of purified nitrogen gas. The final extracts(3μl of each)were injected into a gas chromatograph with a flame photometric detector. The results reveal that TBT and DBT were predominant in the whole area of study. The concentration of TBT(29-360 ppt)was higher than DBT(0-292 ppt)in the riverwater. In the sediment, the concentration of DBT( 154-68800 ppb ) was higher than TBT ( 3650-30222 ppb )。 Gransize between 0.053㎜to 1.00㎜ was predominant in the extent of sorption of organotin to sediments. The percentage of this gransize was from 82% to 98%. The major source of organotin pollution was Kaohsiung Harbor, but there were some other sources upstream of Chih-Ping Bridge. The polluted source of phentyltin was from the upstream of Chih-Ping Bridge and the branch of Love River(Canal, No2).
Comparing to other countries, organotin pollution was more serious in Love River. The concentration of TBT exceeded maximum allowable level of 20 ppt in accordance with regulations set by Britain. It is necessary to strengthen the regulation of organotin in Taiwan.
頁次.
中文摘要………………..…………......………………………………….…Ι
英文摘要………………………………………… ……..……………….. .Ⅱ
目錄………………………………………………...………………………Ⅳ  
表目錄…………………………………………………………………..... Ⅵ
圖目錄……………………………………………….…………………..…Ⅶ
壹、前言…………………………………………………………..….…….….1
一、有機錫化合物的種類與用途……………………………………….1
二、有機錫化合物的特性與污染…………………………………....…4
三、有機錫化合物對生物的影響………………….…………………..12
(一)有機錫化合物對生物的毒性……….......................………...12
(二)三丁基錫化合物的蓄積............…………….…........……......14
(三)有機錫化合物TBT的累積與代謝……….......……….……16
四、愛河簡介…………………………………………………..……….17
五、研究動機……………………………………………………………19貳、材料與方法…………………………………………….................…….21
一、藥品及溶液製備.................................................................................21
(一)藥品……………………….....….………………….......……21
(二)試劑水……………….……….……………………….......…21
(三)氯化有機錫的配置………….…………………………....…22
二、儀器與設備……………………………...………………….............22
三、樣品採集與處理方法………………………...……………........….23
(一) 採樣地點……………………………………….....................23
(二) 採樣時間……………………………………………….…....24
(三) 採樣方法與樣品前處理………………………………….....24
四、分析方法……………..………………………………………..........26
(一) 水文資料...................................................................................26
(二) 有機錫分析…........................….…………………………......28
(三) GC-FPD之操作…………....………….………………….…28
(四) 檢量線製作……...........................................….……………28
(五) 方法偵測極限…………............................…………….……30
(六) 回收率……………………………..….......…………………31

參、結果........................................................................................................33一、有機錫的分析……………………………................……….….…..33
 (一)GC-FPD之分析………………..…………….........………….33
(二) 有機錫分析之品管…………………..………......…….……35
二、河水樣品數據……………………………………….......……… …43
(一)水文資料………………………………………..…..................43
(二)有機錫分析……………………………………………......…. 47
三、沉積物樣品數據…………………………………………..…….….53
(一)沉積物不同粒徑有機錫含量分析….…...……................….53
(二)愛河表層沉積物有機錫濃度分析.........................................62
(三)高雄橋沉積物有機錫含量之垂直分析.................................65

肆、討論........................................................................................................74一、有機錫的分析……………………………................……….….…..74
二、河水樣品數據....................………………................……….….…..74
三、愛河沉積物有機錫濃度分析............……................……….….…..76
 
伍、結論………………………………..………………..................………81
陸、參考文獻……………………………..……….....................………….82
柒、附錄……………………………………..........................….....……….87
一、愛河水樣有機錫數據.......….....….......….........................................87
二、愛河沿岸表層沉積物樣品之粒徑分析................….....……….......88
三、高雄橋沉積物樣品之粒徑分析...................….....……....................89
四、不同粒徑之有機錫含量.......….....………........................................90
五、愛河沿岸沉積物有機錫污染分析結果.......….....……...............….91
六、高雄橋沉積物有機錫污染分析結果.......….....……...................….92





表目錄
表一、有機錫化合物的主要用途…………………………...….......................2
表二、台灣地區近年來進口有機錫化合物數量表…………......…..…..........3
表三、環境中有機錫化合物污染來源…………………………...…...…........6
表四、TBT在不同生物的BCF值比較..........................................................18
表五、水樣有機錫化合物分析方法偵測極限…………………..............…....41
表六、沉積物有機錫化合物分析方法偵測極限…………..........................…42
表七、水樣分析方法回收率………………………………........................…44
表八、沉積物分析方法回收率……………………………........................…44
表九、愛河與其他國家地區水體之有機錫含量比較……………................54
表十、愛河與其他國家沉積物之有機錫含量比較………......…..................69
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