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研究生:蔡致維
研究生(外文):Jr-wei Tsai
論文名稱:愛河之水文研究
論文名稱(外文):Hydrographic Characteristics of the Love River
指導教授:曾若玄曾若玄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ruo-Shan Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋資源學系研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:濁度水力深度水力半徑調和分析鹽度
外文關鍵詞:hydraulic depthturbiditysalinityhydraulic radiusharmonic analysis
相關次數:
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本文在2001/12/20至2003/9/10一共完成了27次愛河流量與水文觀測,觀測地點位於九座橋上,另於2004/6/16在七賢橋做一次長約27小時的連續觀測。感潮段的水深受到潮汐的影響很大,高雄橋大潮時潮差達1m,小潮時潮差只有10cm左右。此外鹽度變化與水位同相,漲潮時鹽度上升,退潮時鹽度下降,底層鹽度大約27~33 psu,上層鹽度大約5~25 psu。表層水溫與氣溫相關,底層水溫卻未與氣溫同時變化,而濁度與潮位反相,漲潮時濁度下降,退潮時濁度上升。將水位、鹽度、濁度作調和分析運算,分潮 K1振幅大於M2振幅,代表全日潮影響的大於半日潮的影響,與高雄港潮位的調和分析結果相符合。另於2004/6/16在七賢橋,流速出現週期一小時,振幅20cm/s的振盪。
下游河段(高雄橋至中都橋)的水深和流量受到潮汐的影響非常明顯,潮汐所帶動的流量約為±30 CMS,淨流量約為1 ~ 9 CMS,治平橋開閘後,潮流上溯至鼎新橋,流量出現-7~+16CMS的流量振盪,乾季時上游(鼎新橋至後港橋)的流量很小,約為0 ~ 0.5 CMS,雨季時流量則增加到約1 ~ 5 CMS。上游河段從一月起農業迴歸水量漸增,流量約為 1 ~ 2.8 CMS。中游河段(治平橋至龍華橋)在治平截流站關閉時的自然流量(總流量扣除抽水量)約為0 ~ 5.7 CMS。
愛河上游之水力深度D與水力半徑R之關係比(R/D=α),於流量Q小於2 CMS以下時,R/D=α值皆為0.9-1.0之間,也就是當流量較小時,α值趨近於1;但於流量2 CMS以上時,R/D=α值變動範圍為0.8~0.9之間,並且於較大流量時α值趨向0.8之趨勢。水力深度和流量的關係可以得到流量率定曲線(rating curve ),曲線擬合後得到平均水深隨著流量增加的近似關係,愛河的中游(龍心橋)為 D=1.811Q0.2981和愛河的上游(後港橋)為 D=0.2657Q0.2555。流量Q與通水斷面參數TD5/3成正比,其中T為水面寬度,此符合曼寧公式 Q=βTD5/3之性質,而符合線性關係者有二,鼎新橋TD5/3=7.171Q和後港橋的TD5/3=0.7435Q。
In this study, twenty-seven experiments of transport and hydrographic observations were conducted at 9 bridges along the Love River during the period between 2001/12/20 and 2003/9/10. In each experiment repeated measurements were made at each bridge every two hours for a total period of 12 hours. An additional experiment (the 28th experiment) was conducted at 2004/6/16 in the Chihsien Bridge which consists of continuous measurements of velocity, depth and turbidity with a total length of 27 hours. Our results indicate that the Love River is influenced by the incoming tides from the river mouth up to the Dingxin Bridge. The tidal range is approximately 1m during spring tides (10cm during neap tides) at river mouth. The velocity at the Chihsien Bridge has a high frequency variation with a period of approximately 1 hour and amplitude of 20 cm/s during the 28th experiment. Salinity variations are in phase with tides, while turbidity and tides are out of phase. Harmonic analysis of depth, velocity, salinity and turbidity data all indicate that K1 is the principal tidal constituent followed by M2.
River transport in the lower estuary is mainly comprised of two parts: tide and river discharge. The tidal induced transport is estimated to be ±30 CMS and net river discharge is about 1~9 CMS. The upper estuary is affected by two transport mechanisms: agricultural runoff and rain precipitation. After analyzing the measurement results, the transport of the upper branches is estimated to be 0~0.5 CMS during dry seasons and 1~5 CMS during rainy seasons. The agricultural transport reaches its maximum value in January with an estimated rate of 1~2.8 CMS.
For the upper branches of Love River, the ratioαbetween the hydraulic depth D and hydraulic radius R is found to reach a constant value of 0.9~1.0 when the transport Q is less than 2CMS, andαis 0.8~0.9 when Q is greater than 2 CMS. The relationship between Q and the section factor TaDb, where T is the channel width, is found to be TD5/3=7.171Q (Dingxin Bridge) and TD5/3=0.744Q (Hougang Bridge) based on Manning formula. Finally, the relationship between Q and D is found to be D=1.811Q0.2981 (Longxin bridge) and D=0.266Q0.256 (Hougang Bridge).
謝誌----------------------------------------------------------------------------------I
摘要---------------------------------------------------------------------------------II
目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- V
圖目錄--------------------------------------------------------------------------- VII
表目綠----------------------------------------------------------------------------- X
一、導論---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1-1 前言-------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1-2 研究目的-------------------------------------------------------------------4
二、研究區域概況--------------------------------------------------------------- 6
2-1 愛河簡介-------------------------------------------------------------------6
2-2 雨量------------------------------------------------------------------------ 7
2-3 潮汐------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8
三、水理資料蒐集--------------------------------------------------------------11
3-1實驗設計------------------------------------------------------------------11
3-2 儀器設備-----------------------------------------------------------------19
四、愛河的感潮水理及調和分析--------------------------------------------20
4-1 水位變化-----------------------------------------------------------------21
4-2 流速特性-----------------------------------------------------------------33
4-3鹽度、溫度及濁度--------------------------------------------------------40
4-3-1鹽度-------------------------------------------------------------------40
4-3-2溫度------------------------------------------------------------------ 44
4-3-3濁度------------------------------------------------------------------ 44
4-3-4實驗二十八之鹽度、溫度及濁度------------------------------ 45
五、愛河之流量分析-----------------------------------------------------------49
5-1影響愛河流量的因素---------------------------------------------------49
5-1-1潮汐的影響----------------------------------------------------------49
5-1-2雨量的影響----------------------------------------------------------50
5-1-3農業迴歸水的影響-------------------------------------------------51
5-2 上游測站之流量關係式-----------------------------------------------58
5-2-1 水力半徑關係式-------------------------------------------------- 59
5-2-2流量Q和水面寬度T之關係式-------------------------------- 66
5-2-3流量Q和水力深度D之關係式---------------------------------70
5-2-4流量Q和通水斷面參數TD5/3之關係式-----------------------74
六、結論------------------------------------------------------------------------- 78
參考文獻------------------------------------------------------------------------- 80
參考文獻
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