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研究生:方鴻慈
研究生(外文):Hung-tzu Fang
論文名稱:台灣西部沿海養殖牡蠣中多氯聯苯同源物含量及特性之研究
論文名稱(外文):Concentrations and characteristics of PCB congeners in the aquaculture oysters (Crassostrea gigas) along west coast, Taiwan
指導教授:李宗霖李宗霖引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋環境及工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:牡蠣同源物多氯聯苯
外文關鍵詞:polychlorinated biphenylsoystercongeners
相關次數:
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本研究以具經濟價值的牡蠣來做監測指標,用以探討台灣西部沿
海養殖牡蠣中多氯聯苯同源物含量及特性之研究,以及多氯聯苯濃度
是否有季節性變化。樣品於92 年5 月∼93 年3 月所採集,依季節共
採四次,採樣點為台灣西部沿海的新竹、彰化、雲林、嘉義及台南的
牡蠣養殖區。
檢測的結果顯示,牡蠣中之總多氯聯苯濃度範圍為3.43∼93.3
(ng/g of dry weight),中位數濃度為20.3(ng/g of dry weight),其中
鹿耳門所測得之多氯聯苯濃度為所有測站中最高(74.7∼93.3 ng/g),
其次高的是七股、安平測站,測得多氯聯苯濃度為46.5∼72.0(ng/g)。
除了以上測站,其餘多氯聯苯的含量則平均地遍佈在沿岸(3.43∼41.2
ng/g,中位數14.9 ng/g)。多氯聯苯的濃度與牡蠣的脂質含量、殼長
相關性並不顯著。因此影響全部場區多氯聯苯濃度的變化主要是受污
染源存在與否,而與牡蠣的脂質含量、殼長大小之變化則無明顯之相
關性。
本研究發現部分測站牡蠣中多氯聯苯的濃度於秋天所測得的值
均高於夏天所測,因冬天受干潮影響,而於所有測站中均觀察到冬天
有一降低趨勢。
This study investigates the concentrations and characteristics of PCB
congeners in aquaculture oysters (Crassostrea gigas) along the western
coast of Taiwan. Oyster samples were collected from 5 aquacultural areas,
Hsinchu, Changhua, Yunlin, Chiayi and Tainan, during May 2003 and
March 2004.
The results showed that the total PCB concentrations in the oysters
were between 3.43 and 93.3 ng/g dry weight, and the median
concentration was 20.3 ng/g dry weight. The highest concentrations were
found in the oysters collected from Luermen (Tainan) (74.7~93.3 ng/g).
Samples from other two stations of Tainan aquacultural area, Cigu and
Anping, were also found relative high total PCB concentrations
(46.5~72.0 ng/g) than the rest area. This indicates a local pollution source
should be blamed on. Except the above areas, the total PCB
concentrations were found evenly distributed throughout the coast
(3.43~41.2 ng/g with a median concentration of 14.9 ng/g).
The PCB concentrations were not significantly correlated with lipid
contents and shell lengths. Therefore, the variation of PCB concentrations
in all stations might be dependent on the presence of localized sources of
contamination rather than on the lipid content and shell length variation
of oysters.
In some observed stations, the PCB concentrations of oysters in
autumn are significantly higher than in summer. That is because the
adoptive tide in winter will lead to the tendency to reduce PCB
concentrations of oysters.
I
目錄
謝誌
中文摘要
ABSTRACT
目錄Ⅰ
圖目錄Ⅳ
表目錄Ⅵ
附表目錄Ⅷ
第一章緒論..................................................................................................1
1-1 前言.......................................................................................................1
1-2 多氯聯苯特性......................................................................................3
1-2-1 多氯聯苯的化學結構..................................................................3
1-2-2 多氯聯苯的毒理特性..................................................................4
1-2-3 多氯聯苯的物理化學特性..........................................................5
1-3 多氯聯苯之重大危害事件.................................................................6
1-4 以牡蠣作為污染監測指標.................................................................9
1-5 研究目的............................................................................................12
第二章實驗材料與方法...........................................................................13
2-1 試藥與溶劑........................................................................................13
2-1-1 試藥..............................................................................................13
2-1-2 溶劑..............................................................................................13
2-1-3 添加多氯聯苯藥品.....................................................................13
2-1-4 實驗用水.....................................................................................14
2-2 儀器設備............................................................................................14
2-3 容器的清洗........................................................................................15
2-4 樣品的採集與保存............................................................................15
2-5 實驗方法............................................................................................16
2-5-1 含水量之分析方法....................................................................16
2-5-2 脂質之分析方法........................................................................16
2-5-3 多氯聯苯之分析方法...............................................................16
2-6 儀器分析............................................................................................18
2-7 品保與品管........................................................................................19
2-7-1 定量方式.....................................................................................19
2-7-2 回收率.........................................................................................19
2-7-3 方法偵測極限.............................................................................21
第三章結果與討論....................................................................................22
3-1 多氯聯苯與牡蠣脂質含量、殼長之相關性分析..........................22
3-2 多氯聯苯之含量分佈.......................................................................22
3-3 相對於low levels 和high levels 的評估........................................24
3-4 多氯聯苯濃度含量與國外文獻的比較..........................................24
3-5 多氯聯苯同族物(homolog)的分佈特性....................................25
3-6 牡蠣中多氯聯苯濃度的季節性變化..............................................26
3-7 毒性當量因子與毒性當量濃度.......................................................27
第四章結論................................................................................................29
參考文獻......................................................................................................31
附錄74
IV
圖目錄
圖1-1、多氯聯苯結構示意圖.....................................................................4
圖1-2、環境中多氯聯苯傳輸路徑圖(許,2000) .............................36
圖2-1、新竹、彰化採樣點位示意圖......................................................37
圖2-2、雲林、嘉義、台南採樣點位示意圖38
圖3-1、總PCBs 濃度(ng/g of dry weight)與脂質含量(%)的相關
性............................................................................................................39
圖3-2a、總PCBs 濃度(ng/g of dry weight)與牡蠣殼長(mm)的相
關性........................................................................................................40
圖3-2b、總PCBs 濃度(ng/g of dry weight)與牡蠣組織濕重(g)的
相關性40
圖3-3、各測站總多氯聯苯濃度(ng/g of dry weight)的累積百分比
................................................................................................................41
圖3-4、由幾何平均(實線)±1S.D.(log 濃度)求得之Relative high- and
low-levels(虛線)..............................................................................42
圖3-5、新竹多氯聯苯同族物的組成百分比..........................................43
圖3-6、彰化多氯聯苯同族物的組成百分比..........................................43
圖3-7、雲林多氯聯苯同族物的組成百分比..........................................44
圖3-7(續)、雲林多氯聯苯同族物的組成百分比.............................45
圖3-8、嘉義多氯聯苯同族物的組成百分比..........................................46
圖3-9、台南多氯聯苯同族物的組成百分比..........................................47
圖3-9(續)、台南多氯聯苯同族物的組成百分比.............................48
圖3-10、雲林測站牡蠣中多氯聯苯濃度的季節性變化.......................49
圖3-11、台南測站牡蠣中多氯聯苯濃度的季節性變化.......................50
VI
表目錄
表1-1 、多氯聯苯之主要用途及使用範圍............................................51
表1-2 、多氯聯苯商品組成之比較........................................................52
表1-3 、209 種多氯聯苯同源物的數字代號(IUPAC No.)和結構式
................................................................................................................53
表2-1、台灣西部牡蠣的採樣點及日期..................................................54
表2-2、各採樣點間牡蠣的殼長、寬、高(mm) ...............................55
表2-3、多氯聯苯QC Check 樣品SRM1974a 分析結果......................56
表2-4、樣品添加標準品的平均回收率(%) 57
表2-4(續)、樣品添加標準品的平均回收率(%) ...........................58
表2-5、各測站擬似標準品的平均回收率(%) .................................59
表2-6、方法偵測極限(ng) ........................................................................60
表2-6(續)、方法偵測極限(ng) 61
表2-6(續)、方法偵測極限(ng) ............................................................62
表3-1、牡蠣之脂質含量(%)...............................................................63
表3-2、牡蠣之總多氯聯苯(ng/g of dry weight) 64
表3-3 、Low and high level limits in Taiwan, Korea and US marine
bivalves. .................................................................................................65
表3-4、台灣和其他區域沿岸二枚貝中多氯聯苯的殘留濃度(ng/g of
wet weight) .........................................................................................66
VII
表3-5、USFDA 規定中各類食品之多氯聯苯容忍含量.......................67
表3-6、國內衛生署公告各類食品中之多氯聯苯限量.........................67
表3-7、多氯聯苯同源物之毒性當量因子..............................................68
表3-8 、92 年5 月牡蠣中多氯聯苯之毒性當量濃度(ng WHO-TEQ/g
dry weight)..........................................................................................69
表3-9 、92 年7∼10 月牡蠣中多氯聯苯之毒性當量濃度(ng
WHO-TEQ/g dry weight) ..................................................................70
表3-10 、92 年11∼12 月牡蠣中多氯聯苯之毒性當量濃度(ng
WHO-TEQ/g dry weight ) ................................................................71
表3-11 、93 年3 月牡蠣中多氯聯苯之毒性當量濃度(ng WHO-TEQ/g
dry weight)..........................................................................................72
表3-12、Distribution of co-elution PCB congeners into different homolog
groups.....................................................................................................73
VIII
附表目錄
附表1、各測站之經緯度..........................................................................75
附表2、92 年5 月雲林、嘉義、台南牡蠣中多氯聯苯含量76
附表2(續)、92 年5 月雲林、嘉義、台南牡蠣中多氯聯苯含量77
附表2(續)、92 年5 月雲林、嘉義、台南牡蠣中多氯聯苯含量78
附表3、92 年7∼10 月雲林、嘉義、台南牡蠣中多氯聯苯含量79
附表3(續)、92 年7∼10 月雲林、嘉義、台南牡蠣中多氯聯苯含量80
附表3(續)、92 年7∼10 月雲林、嘉義、台南牡蠣中多氯聯苯含量81
附表4、92 年11∼12 月新竹、彰化、雲林、台南牡蠣中多氯聯苯含
量82
附表4(續)、92 年11∼12 月新竹、彰化、雲林、台南牡蠣中多氯聯
苯含量83
附表4(續)、92 年11∼12 月新竹、彰化、雲林、台南牡蠣中多氯聯
苯含量84
附表4(續)、92 年11∼12 月新竹、彰化、雲林、台南牡蠣中多氯聯
苯含量85
附表5、93 年3 月雲林、台南牡蠣中多氯聯苯含量86
附表5(續)、93 年3 月雲林、台南牡蠣中多氯聯苯含量87
附表5(續)、93 年3 月雲林、台南牡蠣中多氯聯苯含量88
31
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