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研究生:江朕榮
研究生(外文):Chen-jung Chiang
論文名稱:以數值模式探討颱風湧昇流之時空變化
論文名稱(外文):Numerical Study of Typhoon upwelling
指導教授:于嘉順
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋環境及工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:冷水團颱風模式湧昇流
外文關鍵詞:upwelling
相關次數:
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海洋湧昇流區,由於底層附含營養鹽的冷水團隨著海流湧昇,是一個基礎生產力相當高的地方,因此也同時形成相當重要的漁場,由於其豐富的海流動力生態系統,更成為學者觀察及研究的重點區域。過去由於科技發展不若現在那麼發達,因此所觀察到的湧昇流區大多侷限於近岸海域;近年由於太空科技的進步,大量的觀測衛星發射成功或飛行器搭載觀測相機,使得衛星照片及空照圖大量的產生,因此可以觀察到相當大範圍的區域,所以也發現了湧昇流區不僅止於近岸的海域,在遠洋同樣也發現了湧昇現象。本研究是使用COHERENS來作為模擬颱風湧昇產生流的水理模式。COHERENS雖然可以讓使用者輸入風場與氣壓場來計算對水體的影響,但是卻無法自行計算下一時間的風場與氣壓場,使用者必須給定每一時間的風場及氣壓場,如此才可得到風場及氣壓場連續變化對水體的影響。所以為了達到這個目的,使用颱風模式來得到颱風內部海表面的風場及壓力場資料。為了能觀察到冷水團湧昇與颱風之間的關係,本篇研究設計了一系列的案例包含不同水深及不同的中心風速,以其能從中發現一些湧昇與颱風的關係。最後實際案例則是選擇啟德颱風做為模擬的例子,可以發現颱風過後冷水團的產生,與實際的觀測現象符合。
Past investigations were mostly concentrated on the upwelling phenomena observed in the coastal region caused by the variations of topography and the influences of monsoon and oceanic currents. These upwelling are the major sources known to form the plankton production in the surface layer. Remote sensing techniques have been developed very fast recent years, more profound phenomena could be observed at the sea surface. The biggest advantage of using satellite-scanning technique is that larger area can be observed than before and have fewer limitations by weather. Short-term upwelling, such as the storm generated upwelling, can be traced. Lin (2003) reported cold sea surface temperature regions along two typhoon tracks from satellite images. Sea surface cyclonic eddies can usually be observed at the region of typhoon where covered with depressions and strong winds. It is often the place where the upwelling also occurred. Snapshot of satellite images also shown plankton in surface water could grow very quickly after the typhoon left, since enough nutrients have been supplied from deep water. Due to the high water temperature and evaporation rate in the SCS, it is a well know region of energetic weathering system where typhoon occurs quite often. In order to quantify the upwelling processes and study the effects of after-typhoon bloom, a set of numerical studies have been carried out since in-situ measurements are nearly impossible to be implemented. A European community model, COHERENS, has been applied to model the hydrodynamics in the SCS. Slight modification of the code has been done in order to introduce the wind and the pressure field inside typhoon using a parametric typhoon model. In this paper, a series of idealized typhoon cases have been designed, i.e. using various depths, wind intensities and the speed of moving, to identify the influences to vertical structure of the sea water. Simulation of a real case, typhoon Kai-Tai occurred from 6 July to 10 July 2000, will also presented. The model domain is from 3°N to 29°N and 99°E to 125°E with a resolution of 1/6 degree. Cold-water upwelling can be observed from the model results.
誌謝…………………………………………………. i
中文摘要……………………………………………. ii
英文摘要……………………………………………. iii
表目錄………………………………………………. vi
圖目錄………………………………………………. vii
第一章 緒論………………………………………. 1
1.1 研究動機與目的………………………………….. 1
1.2 文獻回顧………………………………………….. 3
1.2.1 颱風模式..…..……………………………….. 3
1.2.2 湧昇流區…….……………………………….. 5
1.3 論文架構…………………………………………… 6
第二章 模式理論………………………………….. 9
2.1水動力模式理論…………………………………… 9
2.1.1模式之基本方程式及格點分佈………………. 9
2.1.2紊流的計算……………………………………. 13
2.1.3水平擴散之計算………………………………. 13
2.1.4光照度的計算………………………………….. 14
2.1.5 對流項的計算…………………………………. 15
2.1.6 邊界條件………………………………………. 15
2.2 颱風模式……………………………………………20
第三章 颱風風場模式測試與校驗……………….. 28
3.1 颱風路徑分析………………………………………28
3.2 颱風風場……………………………………………30
第四章 案例討論…………………………………... 46
4.1 理想化條件案例……………………………………49
4.1.1 靜態颱風引起的湧昇………………………...54
4.1.2 動態颱風引起的湧昇……………………….. 61
4.2 實際案例--啟德颱風(2000)….……………………67
第五章 結論與建議………………………………..74
5.1 結論………………………………………………..74
5.2 建議………………………………………………..75
5.2 未來研究課題……………………………………..75
第六章 參考文獻………………………………….. 77
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