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研究生:楊宜寧
研究生(外文):Yi-Ning Yang
論文名稱:高屏溪河口與近岸海域沉積物中多氯聯苯與六氯苯化合物含量分析之研究
論文名稱(外文):Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Hexachlorobenzene in SurficialSediments of Kao-Ping Chi Estuary and Nearby Coastal Areas
指導教授:李宗霖李宗霖引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chon-Lin Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋環境及工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:多氯聯苯高屏溪河口六氯苯海域沉積物
外文關鍵詞:HexachlorobenzeneKao-Ping Chi Estuarypolychlorinated biphenylsSediment
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:17
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本研究主要分析高屏溪近岸海域沉積物中多氯聯苯和六氯苯的濃度分布,此類持久性有機物在進入水體後,會吸附在懸浮顆粒上,經由沈澱的機制,累積在沉積物上。所以表層沉積物可以作為目前污染情形的參考。此外沉積物的濃度攸關生活在沉積物上海洋生物體內濃度,進而影響到整個食物鏈的累積濃度。
研究結果發現高屏溪近岸河口海域沉積物的總多氯聯苯濃與六氯苯分布介於1.432 – 6.681 (ng/g dry wt)和0.151 -8.109(ng/g dry wt)之間。並未超過沉積物品質參考準則,但與國外文獻相比,六氯苯仍屬於高濃度污染區。本區最常檢測出的多氯聯苯同源物為PCB 8+5、PCB 56+60+92+84,同族物則以二到六氯的多氯聯苯同族物為主。多氯聯苯與六氯苯濃度為顯著相關,而多氯聯苯或六氯苯濃度與粒徑平均值和總有機碳含量無相關性,但在細顆粒沉積物中,粒徑大小仍是影響的重要因素。高屏近岸海域平面狀毒性多氯聯苯毒性當量介於0.014-0.061 pg-TEQ/g,與國外文獻相比,屬於低毒性當量的範圍;六氯苯毒性當量介於0.015-0.811pg-TEQ/g。
主成分分析得知影響此區的主成份為含高氯數的多氯聯苯主成份、影響平均粒徑和總有機碳的主成份、含二氯與三氯多氯聯苯主成份、與含六氯苯的主成份,此四個主成份可以解釋本區污染分布累積達89.29%的變異程度。依主成份因素分數將本採樣區分群,第一組是地理位置靠近岸邊的一群,第二組是離岸4公里的一群,第三組為含高氯數多氯聯苯的一群,第四組只有一個測站D16,判斷可能有其他來源影響測站D16。整體而言此區沉積物中污染物分布情形受污染源的遠近和淘選作用造成的粒徑大小影響。
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), such as Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) or Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), released into water system. They will adsorb to particles, and incorporate into sediments. Thus the concentrations of PCBs and HCB in surface sediments provide information on recent contaminations. Besides, organisms in marine environment are influenced by the concentration in sediments, and so as the food chain. This study investigated the concentrations and characteristics of PCBs and HCB in surficial sediments of Kao-Ping Chi Estuary and nearby areas.
The concentrations of PCBs and HCB in sediments were ranged from 1.432 to 6.681 (ng/g dry wt), and from 0.151 to 8.109 (ng/g dry wt),with an average of 3.219 and 1.978, respectively. Both of PCBs and HCB did not exceed the concentrations suggested by several sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). Compared with studies in other countries, the sediments in Kao-Ping coastal areas were more polluted by HCB. Neither PCBs nor HCB could correlate well with mean particle size or total organic carbon (TOC). The Toxic equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin-like PCBs and HCB were ranged from 0.014 to 0.061 pg-TEQ/g, and from 0.015 to 0.811 pg-TEQ/g, respectively.
Using Principal Component Analysis, four possible principal components were found. These four principal components could account for 89.29% of the total variance. The first principal component was composed of highly chlorinated PCBs. The second principal component was composed of particle mean size and TOC. And the third and the fourth principal component were composed of di-, tri- PCBs and HCB. According to the factor score plot, the sample stations in this study could be divided into four groups. The first group was the stations that near the shore. The second group which contained stations were 4Km offshore. The third group contained stations with highly chlorinated PCBs. And the fourth group only contained one stations, D16. It was possible that there were other sources influenced station D16. In conclusion, the pollution in the surficial sediments was influenced by the distances from the pollutant sources and the particle size affected by tidal effect.
摘要
Abstract
目錄 I
表目錄 III
圖目錄 V

第一章 前言 1
1-1研究動機 1
1-2研究目的 2

第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1持久性有機污染物 3
2-2環境荷爾蒙 3
2-3多氯聯苯概述 4
2-3-1多氯聯苯化學架構與特性 5
2-3-2多氯聯苯在環境上的現況 6
2-3-3多氯聯苯之重大危害事件 7
2-4六氯苯概述 7
2-4-1六氯苯化學架構與特性 8
2-4-2六氯苯在環境上的現況 8
2-4-3六氯苯之重大危害事件 8
2-5海域沉積物品質參考準則 9

第三章 研究方法 18
3-1材料與儀器 18
3-2試藥及器材前處理 18
3-3沉積物之採樣與保存 19
3-4樣品前處理 19
3-5多氯聯苯及六氯苯分析方法 20
3-5-1沉積物樣品之萃取與淨化 20
3-5-2 GC-ECD設定操作條件 21
3-5-3定量方法-內標準品法 21
3-5-4方法回收率 22
3-5-5實驗室空白分析與偵測極限 22
3-5-6標準品分析 22
3-6總有機碳分析方法 23
3-7粒徑分析方法 23
3-8因素分析 23

第四章 結果與討論 30
4-1多氯聯苯化合物 30
4-1-1 總多氯聯苯含量分析 30
4-1-1-1 總多氯聯濃度與台灣地區其他海域檢測結果比較 31
4-1-1-2 總多氯聯苯與全球檢測結果比較 31
4-1-2多氯聯苯化合物同源物含量分析 31
4-1-2-1 多氯聯苯同源物與全球檢測結果比較 33
4-1-3多氯聯苯化合物同族物含量分析 34
4-2六氯苯化合物 34
4-2-1六氯苯含量分析 34
4-2-2六氯苯濃度與先前濃度比較 35
4-2-3六氯苯濃度與全球濃度比較 36
4-3總多氯聯苯、六氯苯、粒徑平均值、總有機碳相關性分析 36
4-4總毒性當量 38
4-5因素分析 40
4-5-1資料的前處理 41
4-5-2主成分分析結果 41

第五章 結論與建議 78
5-1結論 78
5-2建議 80

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