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研究生:蔡忠諺
研究生(外文):Jong-ian Tsai
論文名稱:電力系統諧波對大型汽輪發電機轉軸及葉片之振動及疲勞分析
論文名稱(外文):Torsional Torques and Fatigue Life Expenditure for Large-Scale Steam Turbine-Generator Shafts and Blades Due to Power System Harmonics
指導教授:曹大鵬曹大鵬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ta-Peng Tsao
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:156
中文關鍵詞:高壓直流輸電疲勞壽命損傷葉片諧波轉矩振盪汽輪機電弧爐轉軸
外文關鍵詞:TurbineBladeElectrical Arc FurnaceHigh Voltage DC TransmissionHarmonicsFatigue Life ExpenditureTorque VibrationShaft
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  • 被引用被引用:2
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在過去三十多年來,大型汽輪發電機組受電力系統激擾之轉矩衝擊已廣泛被研究,但大多數之文獻均集中於偶發性之大型擾動所造成之汽輪機轉軸損壞,例如由網路故障引起之轉軸扭轉振動。很顯然的,由常見電力系統小型擾動所引發的影響較少受到重視。事實上,雖然小擾動不若大擾動般具瞬間之破壞作用,但若其為持續不斷的對汽輪機構件施加激擾,並在某些條件輔助下,其長期(例如數十年)累積損傷可能不容忽視。
許多電力系統運轉狀況會導致小型擾動,如負載切離、線路切換、控制系統參數重設、諧波干擾等,因大部份只引起汽輪機短暫或瞬間之非共振擾動,因此,其破壞作用非常有限,但其中電力系統之次諧波激擾,卻可能激起汽輪發電機組之機電次同步共振,其破壞力即變得非常大。因此,本文針對電力系統中兩種次諧波,提出其對汽輪機轉軸及葉片之轉矩振動及長期損傷分析。
首先,高壓直流輸電系統次諧波由長期穩態激擾之觀點,考量實際兩不同步之交流系統頻率運轉特性,並利用奇異公司三年之研究計劃成果,分析比對汽機轉軸及葉片之累積疲勞損耗,發現鄰近汽輪發電機不論於轉軸或葉片,其長期疲勞損傷顯示有潛在性之危險。再探討不同運轉條件下對損傷之影響,藉以作安全性運轉之參考。同時並提出適當之減振設備-扭轉阻尼器,基於線性系統參與因子輔以機電類比觀念,設計其最佳安置位置及型式,俾確保汽輪機構件不受次諧波之破壞,亦使網路故障時之振動轉矩減輕,以收延長壽命之效。此外,當整流器側發生不對稱線路故障時,本文亦提出於換流側之機電超同步共振現象,並分析其危害程度。
其次,電弧爐負載運轉時產生實功及虛功遽烈之變化,虛功之遽變造成匯流排電壓閃爍之電力污染;實功之遽變導致汽輪發電機實功出力變動,造成次同步頻率成份電磁轉矩激源,對汽輪機構件引發隨機性之次同步振動。此一施加於低壓汽輪機長葉片之小變動應力,當應力與腐蝕環境之結合,提供了腐蝕疲勞作用發生之條件。因此,雖然責任分界點電壓閃爍值仍於管制值以下,長期之腐蝕疲勞損傷模擬發現葉片卻可能早已損壞。換言之,傳統電壓閃爍管制值之保護措施雖可避免人體肉眼舒適,但可能無法完全避免對長葉片之破壞。故當一鄰近電廠之電弧爐專業區,電弧爐負載運轉長期作用不可被忽略,須注意葉片材質強度與運轉環境特性,若評估結果顯示葉片潛藏損壞之威脅,則必須重新設計電廠輸出容量及限制錯開各工廠之運轉責任週期以控制發電機之遽變實功。
During the three decades, the torsional impact on turbine-generator sets due to power system disturbances has been extensively discussed in many research works. However, most of them are focused on the fatigue damage of turbine shafts due to large-signal disturbances. For example, network faults occur. Obviously, the torsional effect subject to small-signal disturbances has not received much attention. In fact, although the small disturbances would not immediately damage the turbine mechanism, the cumulative long-term damaging effects may not be negligible under certain circumstances.
Many operating conditions in power systems may lead to small disturbances on blades; for examples, shedding loads, switching transmission line, resetting control system parameters, and harmonics etc. Nevertheless, others only cause short-term or transient non-resonant disturbances occasionally except the power system subharmonics which could results in electro-mechanical resonance. Therefore, two types of subharmonics in power systems are proposed so as to investigate the toque impact and long-term fatigue life expenditure in turbine shafts and blades.
Firstly, from the steady-state disturbance viewpoint, the long-term cumulative fatigue estimation based on the three-year project of the GE Co. shows that there are potential damages for both the shafts and the blades of the nearby generators caused by the subharmonic excitations of the HVDC link. The fatigue life sensitivity works are also carried out to provide the recommendations for the safety operation. The optimal damper type and disposition scheme for depressing the resonant torque and prolonging the turbine lifetime is consequently motivated, which is based on participation factor of linear systems with the electromechanical analogy. The effectiveness of this scheme on suppressing vibration torque arising from network faults is also satisfying. In addition, the authors propose the new electromechanical supersynchronous resonance phenomenon for the turbine-generators near the inverter station owing to asymmetric line faults near the rectifier station.
Secondly, the dramatic real and reactive power consumption during the melting period of an electrical arc furnace load. The voltage flicker pollution is mainly caused by the reactive power fluctuation while the stochastic subsynchronous oscillation in turbine mechanism is excited by the electromagnetic torque of the subsynchronous frequency which is induced by the real power fluctuation. Such a small stress imposed on the low-pressure long turbine blade combined with its evitable corrosive environment contributing to the corrosion fatigue effect. Although the voltage flicker severity at the point of common coupling is still within the limit, the blade may have been damaged from the long-term corrosion fatigue life expenditure estimation. In other words, the conventional voltage flicker limit established to make human-eye comfortable might not protect the blade from damaging risk. The long-term influence resulted from the electric arc furnace loads cannot always be neglected. It is necessary to take care of the blade material intensity and operating environment. If there is the potential of blade damage, one has to strengthen the output capacity at the power plant or separate the peak load durations among the steel plants to limit the over-fluctuation real power of the generator.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vi
表目錄 x
符號表 ix
第一章、簡介 1
1-1研究背景與目的 1
1-2論文章節概要與創新 5
第二章、系統模型 9
2-1同步發電機模型 9
2-2汽輪機械系統模型 13
2-3激磁機系統模型 17
第三章、高壓直流輸電系統穩態諧波激源分析 18
3-1高壓直流輸電系統換流器輸出電流 18
3-2電磁轉矩頻率分佈 20
3-3主要次諧波電流對應之電磁轉矩頻率分佈 20
3-4高壓直流輸電系統次諧波電流大小估算 22
3-5轉軸及葉片之振動轉矩估算 24
第四章、高壓直流輸電系統次諧波造成汽輪機長期疲勞損傷 32
4-1大型發電機組轉軸及葉片金屬疲勞理論 32
4-2長期疲勞損傷模擬 38
4-3設計初安全因數之考量 56
4-4本章結論 59
第五章、汽輪機受高壓直流輸電系統次諧波激擾之壽命延長策略 60
5-1阻尼器結構與機電類比 61
5-2特徵值分析 65
5-3參與因子 65
5-4高壓直流輸電次諧波電流所引發共振轉矩抑制 69
5-5電力系統故障激起之轉矩抑制 74
5-6本章結論 80
第六章、高壓直流輸電系統非對稱線路故障對汽輪機構件之暫態危害 81
6-1研究系統 82
6-2暫態超諧波源分析 83
6-3時域非線性模擬 88
6-4討論 91
6-5本章結論 92
第七章、電弧爐負載造成之低壓汽輪機葉片長期腐蝕疲勞損傷 100
7-1系統模型 102
7-2電壓閃爍造成之電磁轉矩成份分析 104
7-3電弧爐負載對大型汽輪發電機之轉矩振動 106
7-4汽輪機之葉片腐蝕疲勞 116
7-5電壓閃爍分析 121
7-6長期疲勞壽命分析 129
7-7本章結論 134
第八章、結論與未來研究方向 135
8-1結論及貢獻 135
8-2未來研究方向 137
參考文獻 139
附錄A、機組參數 150
附錄B、各國電壓閃爍與電壓變動標準一覽表 153
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