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研究生:黃國禎
研究生(外文):Kou-jen Huang
論文名稱:利用低空飛行器GPS羅盤定位和CCD攝影機技術對地面目標物方位估算
論文名稱(外文):Rotocraft Low-Altitude Flight Using GPS Compass and CCD camera technique for ground object Azimuth Estimation
指導教授:陳巽璋
指導教授(外文):Shiunn-Jang Chern
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:卡曼濾波器全球定位系統
外文關鍵詞:Kalman filterGPS
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:8
  • 點閱點閱:304
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:59
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本文的主題在討論一個可行的技術,利用全球衛星定位系統(GPS)所傳送下來的載波相位(Carrier Phase)量測量以及GPS羅盤定位和CCD攝影機適用於低空飛行器 / 直昇機在正常狀況下,在不考慮加入陀螺儀量測量的方式,同時對地面靜止目標物之位置及飛行載具本身姿態進行估算的演算法。首先利用飛行器上配載的Charge Coupled Device (CCD) 攝影機從空中來對地面的目標物進行連續取像,同時亦利用飛行載具上配載的GPS羅盤接收器來記錄CCD攝影機連續對目標物取像時所處的位置,其中成像於影像平面中的地面目標物在經過影像處理之後,其影像座標點將可以被擷取出來。本文運用所紀錄之被擷取出之連續影像點以及GPS羅盤的位置資訊,共兩種量測值來代入延伸型卡門濾波器(Extended Kalman Filter)以進行狀態估算。
延伸型卡門濾波器(EKF)為非線性化量測系統,執行系統狀態變數的追蹤工作。可經由狀態初始值(Initial)、預測(Predition)及量測修正(Correction)等過程,來估算方位角及整數未定值(Integer Ambiguity)。
GPS羅盤定位設計來源由感測器、控制器及指示器三部份所組成,使用載波相位信號由兩個GPS接收器到GPS衛星用載波相位(Carrier Phase)量測量在1公尺基線向量和單位向量內其精確度小於1度。由基線向量旋轉角度來求解整數未定值,在傳統兩個GPS接收器基線向量交替方向是基線向量旋轉角度的特例。羅盤旋轉特性提供對於應用旋轉技術方便性設備。羅盤可以取代在傳統導航系統方向設備如磁羅盤或陀螺儀。
GPS羅盤定位和CCD攝影機對地面的目標物進行連續取像,一但目標物的座標系統被確認任何載具,只要裝配了GPS接收器,都能立即的知道目標物的位置,而且完成目的任務。模擬後將可證明上述方案的實用性。經模擬發現,使用延伸型卡門濾波器(EKF)對於地面目標物之靜止與等速度運動狀態下,其誤差在1.8與6米之內,均能收斂呈現系統有效性。
Abstract
A feasible technique, using carrier-phase data from GPS and CCD camera, is presented to identify ground target location as well as azimuth angle of a low altitude aircraft/helicopter without using any gyroscope measurements; the baseline vector can also be identified using GPS compass. The ground target’s image is extracted from background and recorded by image processing technique. By integrating ground target’s location and the recorded GPS data, the designated states can be estimated by using extended Kalman filter technique.
Basically, the extended Kalman filter does the state estimation job, and it’s a nonlinear measurement process. By processing these time update and measurement update, the integer ambiguity as well as azimuth angle can be determined.
The proposed GPS compass system consists of three componets : pointer, sensor, and controller. By using carrier-phase data from two GPS receivers, we can compute the baseline vector, whose length is equal to one meter, and achieve the direction accuracy within one degree. The integer ambiguity number is resolved by rotating the baseline vector; the conventional antenna swapping technique is a special case of the proposed method. Therefore, the GPS compass may replace these magnetic compass or gyroscope used in navigation system.
By continuously snapping ground target image using CCD camera and utilizing the GPS receivers, the coordinate of the ground target can be identified. Simulation justifies the feasibility of the proposed scenario. Simulation has shown that the estimation errors for stationary and traveling with constant velocity ground targets are within 1.8 m and 6 m, respectively.
目 錄
誌謝 i
論文提要 ii
目錄 iii
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
論文正文 1

壹、緒 論
1.1研究動機 1
1.2章節概要 3

貳、數學工具與估算方法
2.1 座標系統
2.1.1 地心固定座標系(ECEF) 4
2.1.2 本地水平座標系(ENU) 6
2.1.3 體座標系(Body) 7
2.2 座標系統與齊次轉換
2.2.1 座標系統 8
2.2.2 齊次轉換 9
I、兩座標間轉換 9
II、Helmert關係式 11
2.3 GPS衛星定位原理與CCD攝影機透視投影
2.3.1 GPS衛星定位原理 12
2.3.2 GPS載波相位量測 13
2.3.3 載波相位與基線向量 15
I、一次差分的GPS載波相位 16
II、二次差分的GPS載波相位 17
III、基線旋轉方式 18
IV、求方位角 21
2.4 CCD攝影機透視投影
2.4.1 CCD攝影機透視投影轉換 24
2.4.2 座標系與CCD透視投影轉換到影像平面 25

參、系統模型與公式探討
3.1 卡門濾波器 28
3.2 延伸型卡門濾波器 36
3.3 延伸型卡門濾波器量測量 44
3.3.1延伸型卡門濾波器量測方程的建立 44
I、GPS量測量的載波相位 44
II、影像系統為離散非線性化量測方程式 45
3.3.2系統模型模擬 49
I、地面目標物靜止狀態 48
II、地面目標物速度移動 50

肆、模 擬 結 果
4.1 模擬建立基本要件 51
4.2 模擬步驟 54
4.3 模擬延伸型卡門濾波器演算法 55
4.4 模擬結果 57
4.4.1 地面目標物靜止狀態 57
4.4.2 地面目標物等速移動 66
伍、結論與未來工作
5.1 全文總結 74
5.2 未來工作 74

參考文獻 75

附錄
1. GPS 接收資料收集操作步驟 78
2. GPS資料經過Excel軟體處理轉成.txt檔的步驟 79
3. GPS指令顯示欄位 83
4. GPS資料載入Matlab軟體 88
5. GPS資料重新整理所需要的欄位 89
6. 衛星的號碼按照順序排列 90
7. 一次、二次與三次差分之載波相位與偽距值 91
8. 兩個接收器對每顆衛星單位向量 97
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