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研究生:黃國挺
研究生(外文):Guo-ting Huang
論文名稱:雙桑克干涉式光纖水中聽音器之設計與解調
論文名稱(外文):The Design and Demodulation of Fiber-optic Hydrophones Based on Dual Sagnac Interferometers
指導教授:陳茂雄陳茂雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Mao-hsiung Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:麥克遜干涉儀桑克干涉儀水中聽音器解調
外文關鍵詞:DemodulationMichelson interferometerSagnac interferometerHydrophone
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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  • 下載下載:22
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
由於聲波能在水中做長距離的傳播,使得水中聽音器在水下偵測方面一直扮演著關鍵性的角色。利用干涉儀為基礎的光纖感測器,有極高的靈敏度與大的動態範圍,此外,光纖感測器不需提供電力給感測頭、不受電磁干擾及極佳的多工化能力,使得光纖可以取代傳統的壓電材料來製作水中聽音器。
桑克干涉儀架構因為零光程差的特性,可以採用低同調性光源降低成本,光路佈放容易且可以替換不同感測頭進行比較,不過其靈敏度隨頻率變化且有偏振引起訊號褪變的問題。而結合法拉第旋轉鏡的麥克遜干涉儀架構,靈敏度為定值,更可以解決極化引起訊號褪變的問題,但需採用高同調性光源和昂貴的法拉第旋轉鏡,且光路製作不易,本文主要利用此架構調整所設計的解調電路。
本文設計干涉式水中聽音器,感測頭利用特殊材料封膠作為聲阻抗匹配及水密之用,利用相位載波解調技術來得到待測聲訊號。本論文量測到的結果為:雙桑克架構動態範圍約23 dB,靈敏度為-226 dB re V/1μPa,結合法拉第旋轉鏡的麥克遜架構動態範圍約為25 dB,靈敏度為 -204 dB re V/1μPa。
Because the acoustic wave is capable of propagating at a long-distance in water, the hydrophone plays a key role in the underwater acoustic sensing all the time. The hydrophone based on fiber optic interferometry has an extremely high sensitivity and large dynamic range. In addition, the electrically passive, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and multiplexing properties of fiber optic sensor offer great advantages over traditional piezoelectric hydrophone.
Due to the complete path-balance between the two counterpropagating waves, a Sagnac interferometric configuration can employ a low-coherent light source to reduce the cost. This configuration can easily route optical paths and replace sensor heads to compare with each other. But, the sensitivity varying with frequency and the polarization-induced signal fading problem make it unsuitable for applications in need of detecting correct amplitude of signals. The Michelson interferometric configuration with Farady rotator mirror (FRM) has a constant sensitivity and solves the polarization-induced signal fading problem. But, this configuration uses a high-coherent light source and expensive FRMs, and be difficult to route. In this paper, we use the polarization-insensitive Michelson fiber optic sensor to adjust the demodulation circuits we design.
In this paper, we establish the interferometric hydrophones. The fiber optic coil of the sensor head is embedded with the special materials in order to acoustic impedance matching and waterproofing. We employ phase generated carrier demodulation technology to get the acoustic signal of interest from the output of the interferometer. In our experiment, the dual Sagnac configuration has a dynamic range of 23 dB and a sensitivity of -226 dB re V/1uPa, the Michelson configuration with FRMs has a dynamic range of 25 dB and a sensitivity of -204 dB re V/1uPa.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
致謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 x
符號表 xi
第一章 簡介 1
1.1 研究背景與文獻回顧 1
1.2 研究動機 3
1.3 論文架構 4
第二章 感測系統之設計 5
2.1感測原理 5
2.1.1 光纖感測原理 5
2.1.2 干涉現象 7
2.1.3 干涉儀 8
2.2 感測系統之架構 9
2.2.1 光源單元 9
2.2.1.1 ASE寬頻光源 9
2.2.1.2 雷射光源 10
2.2.1.3 光衰減器 10
2.2.1.4 光隔離器 10
2.2.2 感測單元 11
2.2.2.1 單模光纖 11
2.2.2.2 2×2光纖耦合器 12
2.2.2.3 法拉第旋轉鏡 13
2.2.2.4 偏振控制器 14
2.2.3 訊號處理單元 15
2.2.3.1 檢光器 15
2.2.3.2 PZT相位調制器 15
2.3 感測系統之數學分析 17
2.3.1 偏振狀態分析 17
2.3.1.1 光纖之瓊斯矩陣 17
2.3.1.2 2×2耦合器之瓊斯矩陣 18
2.3.1.3 法拉第旋轉鏡之瓊斯矩陣 18
2.3.1.4 雙桑克干涉儀之瓊斯矩陣 19
2.3.1.5 結合FRM的邁克遜干涉儀之瓊斯矩陣 20
2.3.2 干涉訊號之分析 21
2.3.2.1 雙桑克干涉儀之干涉訊號 21
2.3.2.2 結合FRM的邁克遜干涉儀之干涉訊號 24
第三章 解調電路之設計 26
3.1 調變與解調 26
3.2 解調方式 27
3.2.1 被動式零差(HOM)解調 27
3.2.2 主動式零差(HOM)解調 29
3.2.3 外差(HET)與合成外差(SHET)解調 30
3.3 PGC解調電路之設計 32
3.3.1 PGC解調原理 32
3.3.2 PGC解調電路 34
3.3.2.1 非反相放大器 34
3.3.2.2 乘法器(倍頻器) 35
3.3.2.3 低通濾波器 35
3.3.2.4 微分器 36
3.3.2.5 減法器 36
3.3.2.6 積分器 36
3.3.3 PGC解調電路模擬 37
第四章 實驗與結果討論 38
4.1 基礎實驗 39
4.1.1 2×2光纖耦合器之量測 39
4.1.2 光循環器之量測 40
4.1.3 法拉第旋轉鏡之量測 40
4.1.4 PZT之量測 40
4.2 水中聽音器之實驗 42
4.2.1 雙桑克水中聽音器空氣中之量測 43
4.2.2 雙桑克水中聽音器水中之量測 44
4.2.3 麥克遜水中聽音器水中之量測 47
第五章 結論與未來展望 49
5.1 結論 49
5.2 未來展望 50
參考文獻 51
附圖 56
附表 99
附錄A 107
附錄B 108
附錄C 109
附錄D 110
附錄E 111
附錄F 112
附錄G 112
附錄H 113
附錄I 114
中英文對照表 116
作者簡歷 120
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