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研究生:陳永昌
研究生(外文):Yung-Chang Chen
論文名稱:塑膠球柵陣列封裝界面熱-機械特性之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Thermo-mechanical Behavior of PBGA Package''s Interface
指導教授:錢志回
指導教授(外文):Chi-Hui Chien
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:機械與機電工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2003
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:熱循環塑膠球柵陣列封裝黏結濕氣翹曲
外文關鍵詞:PBGAmoisturewarpageadhesionthermal cycling
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  • 被引用被引用:1
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塑膠球柵陣列封裝與覆晶技術已經廣泛應用於電子工業,然而,在製造及使用過程當中,濕氣與熱將導致封裝體內部應力之產生,因此,可靠度仍是一重要且深受關切之主題。其中,各相關界面熱-機械行為變化所造成之效應,更是舉足輕重。本文首先探討儲存條件與迴焊參數對塑膠球柵陣列封裝晶片翹曲產生之影響,結果顯示塑膠球柵陣列封裝晶片吸濕程度和迴焊參數之交互作用相對於翹曲值變化,二者之間具有極為密切之關係。此外,當相對吸濕量達到0.25%至0.30%之臨界吸濕量時,迴焊過程中塑膠球柵陣列封裝晶片之翹曲值將急劇增加。其後,作者規劃一實驗流程,應用突鈕剪力試驗方法探討環氧基封膠、防焊漆與底板黏結接頭於承受溫度循環時,界面強度劣化之相關特性。同時,防焊漆厚度對界面強度變化之影響亦將一併探討。再者,利用掃瞄式電子顯微鏡進行試片破壞表面觀察以分析其界面劣化特性與破壞型態。其結果顯示防焊漆與底板界面強度明顯受到熱疲勞影響而降低,並且具有較大防焊漆厚度之試片具有較高之界面強度。最後,作者應用單搭接接頭試驗、非線性有限元素分析及疊紋干涉術探討防焊漆與底板界面之相關應力/應變分佈,並分別導出其與防焊漆厚度及搭接長度之關係。本研究所得之結果可提供對塑膠球柵陣列封裝晶片吸濕特性、翹曲特性與界面黏結特性之進一步了解,並且提供改善考靠度設計之參考。
The Plastic Ball Grid Array (PBGA) package and flip-chip technology have been widely used in the microelectronics industry. However, due to the effect of hygroscopic and thermal stresses, the reliability is still of concern during manufacturing and operation, especially for the thermal-mechanical behavior of its corresponding interfaces. Influences of the storage conditions and reflow parameters on the warpage of the PBGA package are investigated in this study first. As the results, the warpage reflected the interaction of the extent of moisture absorption and the change in reflow parameters significantly. Furthermore, a critical relative moisture absorption between 0.25% and 0.30% is found for a considerable warpage response. Next, this study presents an experimental investigation of the adhesion strength of epoxy-based encapsulant material to solder mask coated FR-4 substrate under thermal cycling. Effects of the number of thermal cycles on the interfacial strength are investigated by using button shear test. The relationship between the interfacial strength and thickness of solder mask is also examined. Moreover, to characterize the degradation and fracture behavior, the morphologies of fractured surfaces of the test specimens are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The results of this experiment show that the interfacial strength of the epoxy-based encapsulant/solder mask/substrate joint is apparently reduced by thermal fatigue. And, the test specimen with larger solder mask thickness has higher interfacial strength. Finally, the single-lap joint test, nonlinear finite element analysis and Moiré interferometry are employed to obtain strain/stress distributions on the interface of solder mask and substrate. The effects of solder mask thickness and overlap length are then determined, separately. The results of this study can afford important information for characterizing the features of moisture absorption, warpage and interfacial adhesion of PBGA packages. Furthermore, it can be helpful to identify improvements required in reliability of the package design.
TABLE OF CONTENTS / i
LIST OF TABLES / v
LIST OF FIGURES / vi
LIST OF SYMBOLS / ix
ABSTRACT / xii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION / 1
1.1 Background / 1
1.2 Review of Literature / 3
1.2.1 PBGA Technologies / 3
1.2.2 Thermal and Moisture Effects on PBGA Packages / 6
1.2.3 Adhesion Strength of PBGA Package’s Interfaces / 8
1.3 Objectives of Dissertation / 12
1.4 Scopes of Dissertation / 12
FIGURES / 14

CHAPTER 2 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM / 16
2.1 Experimental Framework / 16
2.2 Shadow Moiré / 17
2.3 Button Shear Test / 18
2.4 Lap Shear Test / 18
2.5 Moiré Interferometry / 19
FIGURES / 21

CHAPTER 3 INFLUENCES OF THE MOISTURE ABSORPTION ON PBGA
PACKAGE''S WARPAGE DURING IR REFLOW PROCESS / 24
3.1 Introduction / 24
3.2 Taguchi''s Orthogonal Array Analysis / 25
3.3 Experimental Analysis / 26
3.3.1 Moisture Sensitivity Test / 27
3.3.2 Warpage Measurement of the PBGA Package / 28
3.4 Results and Discussions / 29
3.4.1 Relationships of the Relative Moisture Absorption and Storage
Conditions / 29
3.4.2 Effects of the Relative Moisture Content on the Warpage During IR Reflow
Process / 30
3.4.3 Effects of Temperature Profile Parameters on the Warpage During IR Reflow
Process / 31
TABLES / 34
FIGURES / 38

CHAPTER 4 THERMO-MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF UNDERFILL/SOLDER
MASK/SUBSTRATE INTERFACE UNDER THERMAL CYCLING / 43
4.1 Introduction / 43
4.2 Experimental Analysis / 43
4.2.1 Materials and Specimens / 43
4.2.2 Thermal Cycling Program / 44
4.2.3 Interfacial Shear Test / 44
4.2.4 SEM Analysis / 45
4.3 Finite Element Modeling / 45
4.4 Results and Discussions / 46
4.4.1 Interfacial Stress Distributions / 46
4.4.2 Effect of Thermal Cycling on the Interfacial Adhesion Strength / 47
4.4.3 Fracture Surface Analysis / 49
TABLES / 51
FIGURES / 52

CHAPTER 5 THE DEFORMATION MECHANISM OF UNDERFILL/SOLDER MASK/SUBSTRATE
ADHESIVE JOINTS / 60
5.1 Introduction / 60
5.2 Experimental Analysis / 60
5.2.1 Materials and Specimens / 60
5.2.2 Lap Shear Strength Test / 61
5.2.3 Moiré Interferometry Measurement / 61
5.3 Finite Element Modeling / 62
5.4 Results and Discussions / 64
5.4.1 Fracture Strength Analysis / 64
5.4.2 Adhesive Stress Analysis / 65
5.4.3 Adhesive Strain Analysis / 66
FIGURES / 69

CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY / 81
6.1 Conclusions of the Study / 81
6.2 Future Work and Recommendations / 82
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