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研究生:林哲民
研究生(外文):Che-Min Lin
論文名稱:OFDM互補碼分碼多工系統之研究
論文名稱(外文):An OFDM System Based on Complementary Code CDMA and its Performance Analysis
指導教授:陳曉華陳曉華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsiao-Hwa Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:通訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:146
中文關鍵詞:完全互補碼正交分頻多工多載波分碼多工
外文關鍵詞:complete complementary codeMC-CDMAOFDM
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本論文主要在探討使用完全互補碼(complete complementary code)的多載波分碼多工系統並使用正交分頻多工技術(OFDM)的可行性。由數個正交矩陣而產生的完全互補碼,是由數個自互補碼組所構成,而自互補碼組之間彼此為互互補碼的關係。而完全互補碼最大的特點在於碼組之間擁有完美的相關性。
在本論文中,我們依據完全互補碼的特性,設計了可以發揮其特性的通訊系統架構,主要是以多載波分碼多工為基礎再配合OFDM技術。另外我們在展頻的方式上也有所改變,不同於以往的直接序列展頻分碼多工,我們所採用的展頻方式是將每一個bit展頻之後,並將每個bit之間的間隔縮短至1個chip後再將所有訊號疊加起來,我們稱之為offset stacking modulator(OSM)。再者,由於我們所用的展頻碼為完全互補碼,其自相關函數及互相關函數是完美的,即使每個bit都與其它的bit重疊,然而bit之間並不會相互干擾,而用戶與用戶之間也沒有相互干擾的問題存在。
然而,這樣的系統最大的問題在OSM輸出多位準點數會隨著支援用戶數的增加而快速上升,一旦多位準點數太高,我們將沒有辦法提供適當的線性功率放大器幫助系統運作。因此我們詳細解釋了整個符號調變與解調變的過程,並且從而得知高符號錯誤率並不會同時造成高位元錯誤率。
因此我們使用切除位準的機制以降低多位準可能值總數。我們可以在合理的犧牲些微位元錯誤率的條件下,將多位準可能點數降低許多,這對於實現OCC碼系統最大的問題,也就是位準點數過多的麻煩,提供一個合宜的方法。
In this thesis, the feasibility of complete complementary code based OFDM CDMA system is studied. The complete complementary code is composed of several sets of auto-complementary codes, any two of which are cross-complementary codes. The perfect correlation between code sets is the distinguishing feature of complete complementary code.
In this thesis, we designed a new OFDM CDMA system architecture according the property of complete complementary code. The most obvious characteristic is that the bit stream in the new system is no longer aligned one bit after another in time. Instead, a new bit will start only after one chip delay relative to the previous bit, which is spread by an element code of complete complementary code. The proposed new CDMA architecture can offer an MAI-free operation in both down-link (synchronous channel) and up-link (asynchronous channel) transmission under the AWGN channel, because of the use of the CC-codes.
However, due to the special spreading modulator-offset stacking modulator (OSM), we’ll encounter a “ multi-level ” problem . If we can’t solve this problem , the linear power amplifier will not be able to support the whole system . Hence , we try to clip the multilevel into a smaller magnitude . And also , we try some other mapping methods to solve the multilevel problem .
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
英文摘要…...……………………………………………………………………….. Ⅱ
誌謝 …………………………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
目錄…………………………………………...…………………………………….. Ⅳ
變數表………………………………………………………………………….…….Ⅵ
圖目錄和表目錄…………………………………………………………………...VIII
第一章 導論………………………………………………………………………1
第二章 正交完全互補碼系統相關技術…………………………………………4
2.0 前言…………………………………………………………………...4
2.1 完全互補碼簡介……………………………………………………...4
2.1.1 正交完全互補碼性質……………………………………………..5
2.1.2 正交完全互補碼產生方法………….………………………...…..9
2.2 多載波分碼多工技術及正交分頻多工系統……………...………………..12
2.2.1 多載波分碼多工技術及正交分頻多工系統架構………...…….12
2.2.2 OFDM簡介………….…………………………………………..14
2.2.3 循環前置概念 …….……………….…………………………..20
2.3 本系統之展頻架構與展頻效益之討論…………………...………………..24
2.3.1 展頻架構…………………………………………………...…….24
2.3.2 展頻效益…………………………………………………...…….26
2.4 結論…………………...……………………………………………………..32
第三章 正交完全互補碼無多用戶干擾系統………………………..…………33
3.0 前言………………………………………………………………….33
3.1 正交完全互補碼下傳系統架構…………………………………….33
3.1.1 下傳系統架構圖………….....………..……………………….....33
3.1.2 OFDM下傳系統………………….……………..…….…………36
3.1.3 下傳系統其無MAI證明………………………..…….…………39
3.1.4 一OCC碼下傳系統例子……………………………..…………51
3.1.5 OCC碼下傳系統Matlab模擬………………………..…………59
3.2 正交完全互補碼上傳系統架構…………………………………….60
3.2.1 上傳系統架構圖………….....………..……………………….....60
3.2.2 上傳系統其無MAI證明….……………..…….………...………64
3.2.3 OCC碼下傳系統Matlab模擬………………………..…………74
3.3 結論…………………...……………………………………………………..75
第四章 OCC碼上下傳系統效能比較…………………...……………………..76
4.0 前言………………………………………………………………….76
4.1 動態指定互補碼以提高資料傳輸速率…………………………….77
4.2 符號對應與解對應之探討………………………………………….80
4.3 OCC碼系統與一般多載波分碼多工系統之比較………………….91
4.3.1 多用戶干擾問題的比較…………………………………………91
4.3.2 傳輸速率比較……………………………………………………94 4.4 結論………………………………………………………………....….99
第五章 OSM輸出多位準問題……………..………………………………….100
5.0 前言……………………………………………………….………..100
5.1 OSM輸出多位準串之探討……………………...……….….…….100
5.2 使用切除邊界位準刻意消除過高的多位準之探討……….……..105
5.3 晶格理論簡介……………………………………………...………117
5.3.1 晶格建構…………………………………….……………….…117
5.3.2 解調QAM( )符號之表現……………………………...……122
5.4 結論…………………………………………………………...……126
第六章 結論與建議…………………………………………………………....127
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………....129
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