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研究生:潘永政
論文名稱:閱讀與摘要範文對外語(英語)寫作的影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of the Effects of Reading and Summarizing Model Essays on EFL Writing
指導教授:吳又熙吳又熙引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:58
中文關鍵詞:閱讀寫作範文摘要
外文關鍵詞:readingwritingmodel essaysummarization
相關次數:
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英語範文的使用在英語為母語、第二語言或外語寫作課程中,常久以來一直是一個有爭議但卻是廣為接受的教學技巧。而研究此相關領域的學者則建議,欲瞭解範文對寫作的影響,必須投入更多的調查研究,尤其是以下幾個議題:範文使用的時間點與方式、不同類型範文的效用、使用範文的數量以及範文對不同語言成熟度學生的效用。在英語為外語學習的台灣,英語範文常被老師運用來輔助培養學生的寫作能力;然而,當地並沒有很多的相關研究來佐證各種範文用途的正當性。此研究旨在為英文範文融入於英語為外語的寫作課,提供更深入的見地及須要留意的事項。
關於此研究調查的確切目地,有下列幾項:(一)廣讀範文對英語寫作的影響;(二)摘要範文對英語寫作的影響;(三)廣讀範文與摘要範文對英語寫作的效益比較;(四)學生對範文使用的態度。為達成以上目的,本研究採用前後測的實驗設計,共有一班十八名外語系閱讀與寫作的學生參與實驗並寫一篇論說文做為實驗的前測,根據前測驗的分數,學生被平均分配到廣讀範文組與摘要範文組,在超過一個月的實驗期間,廣讀組要讀十篇文章而在要組要讀兩篇並予以摘要;後測與前測步驟雷同,以論說文寫作測試學生是否有進步。再者,我們使用了背景問卷調查、回饋問卷調查及訪談,以俾深入了解學生總體的態度。
此研究調查的主要發現,有下列幾項:(一)廣讀範文並不會對寫作產生效益;(二)摘要範文對寫作有某種程度的影響;(三)摘要範文對寫作產生的效益比廣讀範文顯著;(四)學生對於範文的使用整體而言是持正面的態度。由此研究的結果,可以導論出四項在教學上的運用:(一)範文在寫作的使用可佔有一席之地;(二)範文使用時的活動設計而不是數量才是影響效益的主要因素;(三)摘要寫作是配合範文使用一項有效益活動;(四)在使用範文之前,必須要先做學生需求調查分析。
本研究建議,在未來,更多長時間且較多受試者的實驗調查可以設計來探究範文對英語為外語寫作的效用;同時希望,此研究能夠在範文於英語為外語的大學以上的寫作課使用,提供更深入的見解及特別留意的要點
The use of model essays has long been a controversial yet popular technique in both L1 and ESL/EFL writing pedagogy. Researchers in the field so far have recommended that more investigations be made into the effects of model essays on writing, focusing particularly on the following issues: when and how to use models, different types of models, the appropriate number of models, and models for learners with different proficiency levels. In Taiwan as an EFL context, model essays appear to be widely used by writing instructors to facilitate the development of students’ writing proficiency. However, just a few of studies in the local context can be found to justify the theoretical legitimacy of different purposes of model essays in writing classes. The present study aimed to provide more specific insights into and caveats about the incorporation of model essays into EFL writing classroom.
The purposes of this study were to investigate (1) the effects of reading model essays extensively on writing, (2) the effects of summarizing model essays on writing, (3) comparison between the results yielded by reading models extensively and summarizing models, and (4) students’ general attitudes toward the use of model essays. In order to achieve the investigation purposes, a pretest-posttest experiment design was implemented. Eighteen English majors of an intact reading-writing class were asked to write an argumentative essay as the pretest. Based on the scores in pretest essay writing, the participants were equally divided into two groups for reading models extensively and summarizing models. The group of reading models extensively (group E) read ten model essays and the group of summarizing models (group S) summarized two essays over the course of a month. The posttest, which had the same the design as the pretest, was conducted to assess whether or not students made progress. Other instruments such as a Background Questionnaire, a Feedback Questionnaire and an interview were implemented to discover more about students’ general attitudes.
The major findings of the study indicated that (1) reading models extensively might not have positive effects on writing, (2) summarizing models could bring about positive effects on writing but not to a significant level, (3) summarizing models was a more effective technique than extensively reading models, and (4) students generally showed positive attitudes to the use of model essays. From the results of the study, four pedagogical implications were drawn: (1) model essays should have a role in writing pedagogy, (2) it is not the number of models but the tasks accompanying them that are significant, (3) summarization could be an effective technique combined with models, and (4) a students’ need analysis should be made before implementing models.
It is suggested that more studies involving a longer time frame and more participants should be conducted to probe into the effects of models essays on EFL writing. In addition, it is hoped that the present thesis study can provide practical insights into and caveats about the use of model essays in EFL tertiary writing classes.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract i
Table of Contents iii
List of Tables vii

CHAPTETER ONE-INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Research Background 3
1.3 Purposes and Significance of the Study 4
1.4 Operational Definition of Terms 5
1.5 Organization of the Thesis 8

CHAPTER TWO-LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 Effects of (Extensive) Reading Input on Writing 9
2.2 The Effects of Summarization on Reading and Writing 12
2.3 The Use of Model Essays and Writing Pedagogy 16
2.4 Purpose of Investigation 19
2.5 Research Questions 20

CHAPTER THREE-METHODOLOGY 21
3.1 Participants 22
3.2 Procedure 22
3.2.1 Background questionnaire 23
3.2.2 Pretest and evaluation 24
3.2.3 Grouping Techniques 25
3.2.4 Treatment 25
3.2.5 Feedback questionnaire 27
3.3.6 Interview 27
3.2.7 Posttest and Evaluation 28
3.2.8 Statistical Treatment 28

CHAPTER FOUR-RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 30
4.1 Results 31
4.1.1 Effects of extensive reading 32
4.1.2 Effects of summarization 33
4.1.3 Comparison between the effects of the two pre-writing assignments 34
4.1.4 Data analysis of the questionnaires and interview 35
4.1.4.1 Results of Background Questionnaire 36
4.1.4.2 Results of the Feedback Questionnaire 38
4.1.4.3 Digest of interview data 41
4.2 Discussion 43
4.2.1 Effects of reading model essays extensively on writing performance 43
4.2.2 Effects of summarizing models on writing performance 46
4.2.3 Comparison of the effects to the two pre-writing assignment tasks 48
4.2.4 Students’ attitudes towards the use of model essays 50

CHAPTER FIVE-CONCLUSION 53
5.1 Pedagogical Implications 54
5.2 Limitations of the Present Study 56
5.3 Recommendations for Future Investigations 56

REFERENCES 59

APPENDICES
Appendix A Consent Form 65
Appendix B Synopsis of Experimental Design 66
Appendix C Background Questionnaire 67
Appendix D Assessing Criteria 69
Appendix E Pretest Results 71
Appendix F Grouping Results 72
Appendix G Basic Criteria for Selecting Articles 73
Appendix H Extensive Reading Checklist 74
Appendix I Sheet of Summary Writing 75
Appendix J Feedback Questionnaire 76
Appendix K Interview Questions 77
Appendix L Consent form (Tape Recording) 78
Appendix M Posttest Results 79
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