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研究生:羅家珍
研究生(外文):Jia-Jen Luo
論文名稱:DVD電影教學對大一學生聽力學習的成效探討
論文名稱(外文):Using DVD Films to Enhance College Freshmen's English Listening Comprehension and Motivation
指導教授:柯安娜柯安娜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Johanna Katchen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:DVD電影教學英語教學聽力教學學習動機聽力理解大一英文聽力
外文關鍵詞:DVD films teachingEnglish teachingTeaching English listeningmotivationlistening comprehensionFreshmen English listeningEnglish learningDVD films
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在台灣的英語教學領域中,能找到一個有效的聽力教學方法,一直是研究者的重要課題之一。近二十年來,許多著名學者對此作了深入的討論(Cooper et al, 1991; Chung, 1999; Stempleski and Tomalin, 1990; Katchen, 1996; Baltova, 1994; Chiang, 1996, 1999; Secules et al, 1992; Synder, 1988; Rubin, 1990)並指出廣泛使用錄影帶及錄音帶的視聽教學法,對於學生在聽力學習上有顯著的幫助。
近年來,科技的快速發展致使DVD的產生。DVD結合了傳統錄影帶的特質,並加諸獨特優點:多聲道與多國字幕、影片隨著故事情節分割成不同章節以利搜尋等。在英語教學上使用DVD的研究近兩年來已有所聞(Lin, 2001, 2002; Markham et al, 2001),這些研究屬教學工作坊的性質,或純粹談討不同字幕與教學之間的關連性。然而,卻很少有針對DVD影響特定語言技巧的教學,這一方面的研究。因此,此研究針對DVD電影應用於英語聽力教學的成效作探討。
本論文的五個研究題目為:一、DVD電影教學是否讓大一英文系學生的聽力學習有進步?二、DVD電影的那些特色能夠加強第二外語的聽力技巧?三、在英文聽力課程中,使用DVD電影有何優點及缺點?四、學生對使用DVD電影進行聽力教學的態度為何?五、在聽力教學課程中,使用DVD電影作為主要教材,有何教學上的建議?
本研究持續了一學年,參與實驗的學生為33個北部國立大學外文系大一的學生。本研究的結果顯示大一英文系學生的聽力在經過一年的DVD電影教學後確實進步了,而DVD電影所創造的教學環境,也確實讓學生的學習動機提高。另外,選用DVD電影教學之趣味性及其在英語聽力學習的成效上,相關程度為中高度。本論文率先使用DVD電影作為教學主軸,並針對DVD電影應用於英語聽力的教學作正式研究。其結果並鼓勵未來的研究在針對DVD電影在其他英語技巧的教學上作深入探討。
One of the most important tasks of English teaching in Taiwan is finding an efficient method of teaching English listening. In the past decade, the use of video to teach listening comprehension has been widely examined and discussed (Cooper et al, 1991; Chung, 1999; Stempleski and Tomalin, 1990; Katchen, 1996; Baltova, 1994; Chiang, 1996, 1999; Secules et al, 1992; Synder, 1988). Rubin (1990) states that watching video is an active process in which listeners choose and interpret the given information coming from auditory and visual cues to define what is going on and what the speakers are trying to express. That is, the listener uses his or her own way to give meaning to the current given message. This process requires the use of the listener’s background knowledge, or schema (Rost, 2002; Chafe, 1994; Carrell and Eisterhold 1988).
Videos provide plenty of opportunities for the listeners to make their own interpretation and, meanwhile, practice their listening. In recent years, the rapid development of video has brought about DVDs. DVDs are considered to be the most advanced type of video. DVD means “Digital Versatile Disc” or “the Digital Video Disc.” DVDs preserve most advantages of traditional videotapes, and have been produced with much more subtle uniqueness, such as more than two visual and audio channels in different languages, and the separation into chapters. In these recent two years, some studies on DVD films have been conducted (Lin, 2001, 2002; Markham et al, 2001). However, these studies either focused on the discussion of DVD captions or were workshops, but not formal studies. In addition, still few studies have been formally conducted about the influence of DVD films on specific linguistic skills, such as listening, speaking, writing, and reading of language teaching, and moreover, so far in Taiwan, no research has been conducted to investigate the relationship between the use of DVD films and the teaching of English listening. Therefore, in this current study, the effectiveness of using DVD films to teach listening comprehension was examined.
The five research questions were: 1. Does instruction using DVD films help college freshmen, English majors, improve their English listening comprehension? 2. What characteristics of DVD films can enhance L2 listening skills? 3. What are the strengths and weaknesses of using DVD films in English listening class? 4. What are students’ attitudes toward the use of DVD films in teaching listening? 5. What are some pedagogical implications of using DVD films as the main material in an English listening class?
This current study lasted for a whole school year, from September 2002 to June 2003. A pilot study, whose results formed part of the formal study, was conducted in the fall semester, 2002. The designs of the research method of the pilot study and the formal study were the same for both semesters. The participants were thirty-three students in the Foreign Language Department at a national university in northern Taiwan. These participants, whose English proficiency was considered as intermediate level, were enrolled in the course “Freshmen English Listening and Speaking.” All of the teaching materials were developed from DVD films. Teaching activities were designed relevant to the content of each movie. There were two teachers for the course, and the researcher in this study was one of the teachers. Other instrumental tools in this study were questionnaires and while-listening comprehension tests. The results of the statistical analyses indicate that college freshmen’s listening did improve through the instruction of using DVD films in a motivating learning environment with lower level of anxiety after a whole school year. Moreover, the correlation between the enjoyment and the effectiveness of certain movies were investigated, and the correlation coefficients were moderate to strong. This study preliminarily conducted a formally-designed investigation on the correlation between DVD films and teaching English listening, and for future research, the results of the current research encourage researchers to examine the efficiency of the use of DVD films in other aspects of English learning, and set a model for future research design.
中文摘要………………………………………………………………………..……i
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………….………..ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………....v
TABLE OF CONTENTS………..…………...…………………………………..vi
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………….x
LIST OF APPENDICES…………………..………………………….…………xiii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION…………………………………………..1
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE………………..……..3
2.1 Overview.…………………………………………………….……………....3
2.2 Listening Comprehension- A Psycholinguistic Perspective………..………...3
2.2.1 Listening Comprehension………………………………………….……4
2.2.2 Listening Difficulties………………………………………………….…4
2.2.3 Schema……………………………………………………………….….6
2.2.4 Types of Specific Instruction in Listening…………………………….....7
2.3 Advantages of Using Video…………………………………………………..9
2.3.1 Audio-visual Aids………………………………………………….…….9
2.3.2 Authentic Materials………………………………………………...…..11
2.3.3 Motivation………………………………………………………….…..11
2.4 Discussion about DVDs………………………………………………….…14
2.4.1 Advantages of Using DVDs……………………………………………14
2.4.2 Disadvantages of Using DVDs………………………………………...15
2.4.3 Captions and Subtitles……………………………………………...…..16
2.5 Summary……………………………………….…………………………...19
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY………………………………..……20
3.1 Overview……………………………………………………………….…...20
3.2 Research Questions……………………………………………………..…..20
3.3 The Pilot Study………………………………………………………..….…22
3.3.1 The Pretest and the Posttest in the Pilot Study………………………....22
3.3.2 Three Questionnaires……………………………………………….…..23
3.3.2.1 The First Questionnaire…………………………………………..23
3.3.2.2 The Second Questionnaire……………………………………......25
3.3.2.3 The Third Questionnaire………………………………………….28
3.3.3 Conclusion………………………………………….…………………..29
3.4 The Formal Study………………………………………...…………………29
3.4.1 Participants…………………………………………..…………….…...29
3.4.2 A Qualitative and Quantitative Study…………………………………..30
3.4.2.1 The Qualitative Aspect……………………..…………………….31
3.4.2.2 The Quantitative Aspect……………………...…………………..31
3.4.3 Instrumentation………………………………………………………....32
3.4.3.1 The Pretest and the Posttest………………………………….…...32
3.4.3.2 The Posttest Questionnaire………………………………...……..33
3.4.3.3 Data Analysis Methods…………………………………………...34
3.4.4 Materials…………………………………………………………….….35
3.4.5 Instructional Activities…………..……………………………………..36
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION….…………………...39
4.1 Overview………………………..…………………………………………..39
4.2 Statistical Results………………..……………………………………….…40
4.2.1 Formal Study Pretest and Posttest…………….…………………….….40
4.2.2 The Posttest Questionnaire…………………….……………………….41
4.2.2.1 The Comparison of Students’ Attitudes Before and After This School Year……………………………………………………....42
4.2.2.1.1 Question 1………...……………….……………………..42
4.2.2.1.2 Question 2……...………………….………………….….43
4.2.2.1.3 Question 3………………………….……..……………...44
4.2.2.1.4 Question 4………………………….……..……………...45
4.2.2.1.5 Question 5………………………….………..…………...46
4.2.2.1.6 Question 6………………………….……..…..………….47
4.2.2.1.7 Conclusion………………………….……..……..………48
4.2.2.2 The Correlation Between the Enjoyment and the Enhancement
of Listening Comprehension of Each Movie…..………………….49
4.2.2.2.1 Movie 1……………………………….…………………49
4.2.2.2.2 Movie 2……………………………….…………………50
4.2.2.2.3 Movie 3……………………………….…………………51
4.2.2.2.4 Movie 4……………………………….…………………51
4.2.2.2.5 Movie 5……………………………….…………………52
4.2.2.2.6 Movie 6……………………………….…………………53
4.2.2.2.7 Movie 7……………………………….…………………53
4.2.2.2.8 Movie 8……………………………….…………………54
4.2.2.2.9 Movie 9……………………………….…………………55
4.2.2.2.10 Conclusion…………………………….……….……….55
4.2.3 Summary……………………………………………….………………56
4.3 Results and Discussion.……………………………………..………………56
4.3.1 Research Question 1…………………………………….……………...56
4.3.2 Research Question 2…………………………………….……………...59
4.3.3 Research Question 3…………………………………….……………...63
4.3.4 Research Question 4…………………………………….……………...65
4.3.5 Research Question 5…………………………………….……………...68
4.3.6 Summary……………...………………………………….…………….72
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS.…………………….…………………....74
5.1 Overview………………………………………………………..…………..74
5.2 Limitations of the Study…………………………………………..………...74
5.3 Directions for Future Research……………………………………..……….75
5.4 Pedagogical Implications……………………………………………..….…77
5.5 Conclusion……………………………………………………………..……79
REFERENCES………………………………………………………………….…80
APPENDICES……………………………………………………………………..84
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