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研究生:郭靜蕙
論文名稱:台灣高中英文教師對教授英文寫作的課程準備之探討
論文名稱(外文):A Survey of the Academic Preparedness of Taiwanese High School English Teachers for the Teaching of Writing
指導教授:鐘乃森
指導教授(外文):Nathan B. Jones
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:作文教學
外文關鍵詞:EFL writing instructionteacher development
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對很多高中生來說,高中是大學的預備教育,而在大學裡,英文寫作扮演重要角色。不過,很少有研究有關高中英文作文教學的品質,或高中教師如何教授英文寫作。這個研究要探討台灣高中英文教師對如何教英文寫作,以及對於師資培育(teacher education)及教師培訓(teacher development) 的看法。一方面,這個研究呈現他們對英文寫作教學的看法,以便讓在職的教師分享,同時大學教授們可更了解高中英教師的想法及作法。另一方面,這個研究彙整了高中英文教師教英文寫作時所遭遇的困難及對師資培育(teacher education)和教師培訓(teacher development)的建議,希望可以提供改良師資培育程的參考。為了要收集以上問題的資料,我採取一個較質化的個案研究,在三個公立高中做問卷調查,之後還訪談四位英文教師。在資料收集之後,用老師們的回答和陳述做分類及討論。
熟悉教材教法是教師有信心教英文寫作的主要原因,而對於本身英文能力的質疑(他們不是把英文當母語說的人)是讓他們缺乏信心的原因。教師必須去完成一個複雜多變的教學工作,其中,學生、教師及某個教學的情況會隨著時空一直變。教師必須考慮下列因素後才能安排英文寫作教學內容:學生有限的字彙及想法,如何給評語,要不要改文法錯誤,趕課,時間不夠,班級人數太多,以及行政單 位和家長的期望。
高中英文教師教授英文寫作時可以提供範文並且引導學生發掘自已的想法。還可以讓學生共同創作,不但學生可以互相觀摩學習,還可以減輕老師批改的負擔。此外,教師可以收集多數學生所犯的文法錯誤,講解後,讓學生練習。透過評語可以提供師生對話的機會,藉此也可建立良好師生關係。
雖然受訪的高中英文教師大多同意,大學的師資培育對他們後來的英文寫作教學有幫助,但是他們也認為大學所學的教法較傳統,所以他們是邊教邊學怎麼教。因此,可以得到結論是語言學和文學對於一個教英文寫作的高中老師來說是不夠的,有許多外在社會政治因素牽涉在內。此外,這結果也顯出在職訓練課程的重要,教師們不只靠自已學怎麼教,也可從別的老師、研討會的演講者和參與者,甚至從學生身上學習,教師們靠觀察、思考、反省及修正來讓自已教學更有長進。
For many students, high school education is to prepare them for the university, where English writing plays a part. However, there is limited research about the quality of English composition programs in high schools or about the preparations of high school teachers in terms of EFL writing instruction. This study intends to examine what high school writing teachers in Taiwan think about how to teach writing and what they think of teacher education and teacher development. On the one hand, their opinions on teaching EFL writing are presented, so that in-service teachers can share, and college scholars may better understand, what high school EFL writing teachers are thinking and doing. On the other hand, the difficulties troubling them are displayed and their suggestions for teacher education or development are discussed, which might shed light on the reform of teacher education in college.
In order to collect the data for these questions, a case study was conducted. A survey was conducted in three public schools and four interviews were done after the questionnaire. After data collection, the teachers’ answers and self-reports were categorized into several patterns, and discussed further.
Being familiar with pedagogy was the main reason for the teacher to feel confident in teaching writing, while being uncertain of their own English proficiency (since they were not native speakers) played an important role in the teachers’ lack of confidence. The situations of the students, the teacher and the specific teaching context mingled into a complicated changing task for the teachers of this study. There are several factors that teachers had to take into consideration while arranging classroom practice: students’ limited vocabulary and ideas, how to make comments, if it is useful to correct grammatical errors, a busy schedule to match, time shortage and big class size, and administrators’ and parents’ expectation.
EFL writing teachers can help their students by providing models and induce them to venture their own ideas. They can group students so that students can learn from one another and teachers can reduce the number of compositions to check. Besides, teachers can highlight the common mistakes committed by the students, explain the rules, and give them chances to practice. Comments from the teachers can be used to build rapport between the teacher and students by opening up the dialogues between these two sides.
Though the teachers acknowledged that teacher education they received in college helped them to become EFL writing teachers, they also contended that what they learned in college was more traditional and that they were learning how to teach by teaching. The results imply that what it takes to be a writing teacher might involve more than linguistics and literature, with educational policy issues involved. In addition, the results also shed light on the importance of in-service training programs. Teachers are not only learning by themselves, but also from other teachers, seminars speakers, seminar participants, and even their students by observing, thinking, reflecting, and modifying.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
CHINESE ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT…….……………………………………………………….iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………………….v
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………vi
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION….…………………………………………………….1
1.1 Background…….…………………………………………………..…………1
1.2 Purpose of the Study………….………………………………………………3
1.3 Research Questions……….…………………………………………………..3
1.4 Potential Implication……………………..…………………………………...4
1.5 The Organization of the Thesis……………………………………………….5
2. LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………..6
2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………..6
2.2 EFL Writing Teachers’ Perceptions…………………………………………..7
2.3 Conclusion..…………………………………………………………..……..10
3. METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………...13
3.1 Introduction………………..………………………………………………..13
3.2 Qualitative Case Study………………..…………………………………….13
3.3 Instruments………………………………………………………………….14
3.3.1Written Questionnaire………………..……………….……………….15
3.3.2 Oral Interviews……….…………….………………………………....15
3.4 Participants……..…………………………………………………………...16
3.5 Procedures…………………………………………………………………..17
3.6 Data Analysis…………………………………………………………….....18
3.6.1 Close-ended Questions in Written Questionnaire………………..…...18
3.6.2 Open-ended Questions and Oral Interviews................……………......18
4. DATA ANALYSIS………………………………………………..…….. 20
4.1 Introduction……..…………………………………………………………...20
4.2 Questionnaires………..……………………………………………………..20
4.2.1 Closed-ended Questions………….……………………………..…….20
4.2.2 Open-ended Questions………………………………………………...25
4.3 Oral Interview Results…………….…...……………………………………36
4.4 Summary of the Findings……………………………………………………45
4.5 Conclusion…….…………………………………………………………….46
5. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS……………………………………...48
5.1 Introduction……..……………………………………………………..……48
5.2 The First Research Question………...…………………………………....…48
5.3 The Second Research Question….……………………………………….…49
5.4 The Third Research Question….…………..………………………….……55
5.5 Summary of the Discussion.………………………………………………..62
5.6 Conclusion…..………………………………………………………….…..64
5.7 Limitations………………………………………………………………....67
REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………...68
APPENDICES…………………………………………………………………………....76
A-1 Questionnaire (Chinese Version)………………………………………….76
A-2 Questionnaire (English Version)…………………………………………..78
B-1 Interview Transcription (Daisy)……………………………………………80
B-2 Interview Transcription (Ivy)……………………………………………….84
B-3 Interview Transcription (Lisa)……………………………………………...94
B-4 Interview Transcription (Sabina)…………………………………………..97
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