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研究生:詹敦珮
研究生(外文):Tun-Pei Chan
論文名稱:電腦輔助語言教學對於大學生學習英文動詞與名詞搭配詞之效能研究
論文名稱(外文):Effects of CALL Approaches on EFL College Students’ Learning of Verb-Noun Collocations
指導教授:劉顯親劉顯親引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsien-Chen Liou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:123
中文關鍵詞:搭配詞動詞名詞雙語檢索系統效能研究歸納學習法
外文關鍵詞:TotalRecallconcordancercollocationverb-nouneffectiveness research
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文獻指出對於正在學習英文為其第二外語的中等程度之學生,英文動詞名詞的搭配組合是他們發現為其字彙學習上很顯著的弱點,所以給予學生明確直接的搭配詞教學是必須的。另外研究指出,電腦工具的發展,例如資料庫檢索系統,有助於單字學習。然而先前的研究較少利用電腦輔助搭配詞教學,所以本研究針對學生常犯錯之動詞名詞搭配設計了五課線上教材。該教材包含了台灣學生常犯錯的四種動詞名詞搭配組合,並結合了一個線上中英文雙語檢索系統(Totalrecall)。此五課教材分別採用了演繹及歸納教學法。32位非英文系大一學生參與此研究達五週,使用線上教材之前,受試者填寫一份背景問卷,以瞭解其單字學習的習慣及所偏好之教學方法。之後我們在正規大一英文課程中,讓受試者上線使用搭配詞教材。學生完成五課線上練習後,填寫一份評量問卷,以評估受試者對於線上搭配詞教學及雙語檢索系統的的感受。我們也利用前測,立即後測,及間隔兩個半月的後後測,檢驗學生搭配詞表現是否有顯著的不同。更進一步,學生搭配詞程度上的個別差異,學生分別在四種動詞名詞搭配上的表現,及不同教學法應用於搭配詞教學的影響皆列入考量。
研究結果發現,學生全面動詞名詞搭配詞程度顯著進步,尤其以搭配詞能力低之學生進步幅度較大。雖然後後測顯示學生記憶程度退步,但其殘留搭配詞知識仍顯著高於實驗前之搭配詞起點水準。四種動詞名詞搭配組合中,學生於輕動詞上進度最多,中英文互不對照之搭配詞進步次多。最後殘留記憶程度上,學生輕動詞表現仍最好,上下位詞殘留程度最弱。就不同教學法而言,經由歸納教學法,學生搭配詞進度幅度較大。而長遠來看,歸納教學法學相對較有助於學生搭配詞之殘留記憶。總體而言,學生對於線上搭配詞教學模式持正面態度,並表示希望有機會使用類似教材學習英文搭配詞。問卷結果顯示,雖然學生仍習慣於演繹教學法,但歸納教學法對於搭配詞學習有正面效益,未來歸納學習法結合語料庫檢索系統具有幫助學生搭配詞學習之潛力。
本研究發現搭配詞教學對學生字彙學習是有效的。另外也發現學生於不同類型的動詞名詞搭配表現不同,所以搭配詞教材設計應該針對不同搭配詞類型,給予學生適時適量的練習。此外培養學生歸納性的教學策略,以及提供完善規劃之學習活動及指導,將有助於學生從事歸納學習及檢索工具之使用。建議未來研究應包含更多受試者並長期觀察追蹤學生學習,以更進一步驗證搭配詞教學之成效。
A critical review of EFL studies (some conducted on Taiwanese learners) indicated English verb-noun (V-N) miscollocation was a dominant lexical weakness among intermediate learners, and explicit teaching plus practice could be useful. Yet, few of the previous studies have tried CALL approaches. With the development of new tools such as a concordancer, web-based technologies may promise to promote EFL learners’ learning of V-N collocation. Five web-based hourly practice sessions were thus designed based on the analysis of major V-N miscollocation data by local learners with two significant features: a sample of four important V-N miscollocated types, and the use of an online bilingual concordancing tool, TotalRecall (developed by a research team named CANDLE-Corpora And NLP for Digital Learning of English). Four types of V-N lexical collocations included synonymous verb pairs, hypernymy and troponymy verb pairs, de-lexicalized verbs, V-N collocations that are non-congruent between Chinese and English. Both deductive and inductive teaching methods were incorporated into the design based on the nature of particular V-N types. Within the CANDLE environment, a web-based tracker was designed to record students’ online learning history. Then, 32 college freshman students of non-English major were recruited to participate in the empirical evaluation part with pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest measures of 36 purposefully sampled items of blank-filling in a sentence context. Additionally, a background questionnaire and an evaluation questionnaire were used to elicit participants’ data and perception about the effectiveness of the CALL approaches. Results of the pretest measures were used to categorize learners into different groups. The online practice lasted for about five weeks. Research questions address the impact of factors such as learners’ prior collocation knowledge, different types of V-N collocation, and different online teaching methods on the effectiveness of collocation learning, besides the overall effect and retention (after two and a half months), and learners’ perception about TotalRecall and the design of the practice sessions.
It was found that learners did improve in V-N lexical collocations as demonstrated in the immediate posttest scores. In particular, students at lower collocation levels benefited more from the online practice. Although students regressed significantly after two and a half months, their residual of collocation learning sustained as they performed better in the delayed posttest than in the pretest. Besides, students performed differently in the 4 V-N types as indicated in the three collocation tests. Among four commonly misused V-N collocations, collocations with de-lexicalized verbs and in lack of direct translations in Chinese and English were more receptive to collocation instruction via CALL as can be seen students’ significant progress of these two VN types in the immediate posttest. The residual effects indicated that students performed better in collocations with de-lexicalized verbs and were weakest in collocations involving hypernyms and troponyms. Students’ residual of collocations in lack of direct translations in two languages was slight better than collocations involving hypernyms and troponyms and synonyms though not reaching significant level. With regard to different teaching approaches, the inductive method was relatively more effective in assisting collocation acquisition than the deductive method. Learners progressed significantly with the support of the inductive method based on their performance in the immediate posttest. The inductive method also contributed to learners’ residuals after two and a half months though students regressed significantly more in collocations taught inductively. Students’ responses in the evaluation questionnaire pointed out they perceived collocation instruction via the CALL approaches positively and they wanted to use similar online practice design in future English collocations learning. Although students were used to the deductive method, analysis of three collocation tests showed that they gained more with the inductive method incorporating the use of the online bilingual concordancer.
The results of the current study supported that a web-based collocation instruction module is able to assist EFL college students’ collocation acquisition and students endorsed the usefulness and convenience of it. Since students’ performance was different in terms of different collocation types, instructors might need to pay different attention to different V-N collocations in material design. The findings also implied that the inductive approach with a concordancer has the potential to scaffold collocation learning. It is, therefore, crucial to equip learners with appropriate concordancing skills to smooth the pattern-inducing process. Meanwhile, teachers’ proper guidance and carefully planned activities would facilitate inductive learning. Combining new computer tools and online material design with sound pedagogy would benefit language learning. More participants should be included and long-term studies are suggested in order to verify the effects of collocation instruction in future research.
Table of Contents
Page
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………………... i
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………….. ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………………... iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………………... vi
LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………..…... ix
LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………... xii

CHAPTER Ⅰ INTRODUCTION …………………………………………...... 1

CHAPTER Ⅱ LITERATURE REVIEW............................................................... 3
2.1 The new perspective in vocabulary instruction……………………………... 3
2.2 The nature of collocation……………………………………………………..4
2.2.1 Notions of collocation ……………………………………………….. 4
2.2.2 Pedagogical issues of collocation acquisition………………………... 5
2.3 Collocation analysis and instruction ………………………………………. 7
2.3.1 Empirical studies on English collocations in EFL contexts………….. 7
2.3.2 Empirical studies on collocation analysis based on Taiwan EFL
students’ data……………….………………………………………... 9
2.3.3 Summary on collocation analysis of Taiwan learners’ data:
four common V-N miscollocation types……………………………… 14
2.4 Collocation teaching in Taiwan…………………………………………… 17
2.5 Cognitive approaches in language learning……………………………….. 20
2.6 On-line approaches………………………………………………………… 22
2.6.1 Development of concordancers……………………………………….22
2.6.2 Empirical studies on concordancing learning…….............................. 24
2.6.3 Programs or systems developed for collocation learning…………… 27
2.7 Guidelines and activities for online English collocation teaching and
learning…………………………………………………………………….. 29
2.8 Research questions………………………………………………………… 31


CHAPTER Ⅲ RESEARCH METHOD………………………………………… 33
3.1 Overall design……………………………………………………………… 33
3.2 Participants………………………………………………………………… 33
3.3 Instruments………………………………………………………………… 33
3.4 Instructional design of the six online collocation units……………………. 36
3.5 Data collocation procedures……………………………………………….. 40
3.6 Data analysis……………………………………………………………….. 42

CHAPTER Ⅳ RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION…………………….. 44
4.1 The effects of the online practice on learners’ acquisition of verb-noun
collocations and retention………………………………………………….. 45
4.1.1 The effects of collocation teaching via CALL on students’ overall
collocation knowledge and their collocation awareness……………… 46
4.1.2 Collocation instruction on learning four different types of verb-noun
collocation …………………………………………………………… 48
4.1.3 The effectiveness of different approaches for collocation learning….. 52
4.1.4 Students’ retention of explicit collocation instruction……………….. 54
4.2 Students’ prior collocation levels and their performance………………….. 59
4.3 Participants’ background and their attitudes toward online collocation
practice.......................................................................................................... 62
4.3.1 Participants’ background about vocabulary learning and teaching
styles………………………………………………………………….. 62
4.3.2 Participants’ attitudes toward online collocation instruction ………... 64
4.4 Initial analysis of the tracker’s record……………………………………… 72
4.5 General discussion…………………………………………………………. 74

CHAPTER Ⅴ CONCLUSION…………………………………………………... 78
5.1 Pedagogical implication…………………………………………………….. 79
5.2 Limitations of the study……………………………………………………... 82
5.3 Further research…………………………………………………………….. 82



REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………….. 83

APPENDICES
Appendix A The Pretest……………………………………………………………. 88
Appendix B The Immediate Posttest………………………………………………. 91
Appendix C The Delayed Posttest…………………………………………………. 94
Appendix D The Background Questionnaire………………………………………. 97
Appendix E The Evaluation Questionnaire………………………………………… 99
Appendix F The Taught V-N Incidents Categorized Based on the 4 VN Types…… 103
Appendix G Introduction to the Six Units and the Concept of Collocation ………. 106
Appendix H Online Collocation Unit 1-1…………………………………………... 107
Appendix I A Sample of the Score Report for Multiple-choice Exercises…………110
Appendix J A Sample of Explicit Feedback for Translations Exercises…………... 110
Appendix K An Example Demonstrating the Way to Use the Bilingual
Concordancer…………………………………………………………. 111
Appendix L The Written Instruction Manual of the Bilingual Concordancer……... 113
Appendix M Online Collocation Unit 3……………………………………………. 115
Appendix N Results of the Background Questionnaire……………………………. 118
Appendix O Results of the Evaluation Questionnaire………………………………120














List of Tables
Page
Table 2.1 Seven types of lexical collocations…………………………………… 6
Table 2.2 The distribution of the 233 verb pairs by frequency (Liu, 2002,
p. 48)………………………………………………………………….. 13
Table 2.3 The summary of empirical collocation studies in Taiwan……………. 16
Table 3.1 The distribution of sampled items involving different teaching methods
in the three collocation tests………………………………………….. 35
Table 3.2 The distribution of sampled items involving different V-N types in the
three collocation tests…………………………………………………. 35
Table 3.3 Class A’s and B’s schedules for collocation units ……………………. 41
Table 3.4 Class A’s and Class B’s Data collection procedures………………...... 41
Table 4.1 The final distribution of sampled items involving different V-N types
and teaching methods in three collocation tests ……………………… 46
Table 4.2 The paired t-test for comparison of pretest scores and posttest scores.. 47
Table 4.3 The paired t-test for comparison of 26 taught items in the pretest and
the immediate posttest ……………………………………………….. 47
Table 4.4 The paired t-test for students’ collocation awareness in the pretest
and the immediate posttest……………………………………………. 48
Table 4.5 The paired t-test for students’ collocation awareness in the
immediate posttest and the delayed posttest………………………...... 48
Table 4.6 The repeated measure statistics for the subscores of the 4VN types
in the pretest ………………………………………………………….. 49
Table 4.7 The Post hoc comparisons using the LSD test for 4VN subscores
in the pretest …………………………………………………………. 50
Table 4.8 The repeated measure statistics for the gain scores of the 4VN types
in the immediate posttest and the pretest……………………………... 51
Table 4.9 The paired t-test for the mean scores of deduction and induction in
the pretest……………………………………………………………. 53
Table 4.10 The gain scores of deduction and induction in the immediate posttest
and the pretest………………………………………………………… 53
Table 4.11 The paired t-test for the retention of overall collocation knowledge
between the immediate posttest and the delayed posttest…………….. 55

Table 4.12 The paired t-test for the retention of overall collocation knowledge
between the pretest and the delayed posttest…………………………. 55
Table 4.13 Mean changes of the 4 VN types between the immediate posttest and
the delayed posttest…………………………………………………… 56
Table 4.14 Mean changes of the 4 VN types between the delayed posttest and
the pretest…………………………………………………………….. 56
Table 4.15 The paired t-test for mean changes of two teaching methods between
the immediate posttest and the delayed posttest……………………… 58
Table 4.16 The paired t-test for mean changes of two teaching methods between
the pretest and the delayed posttest…………………………………… 58
Table 4.17 The independent sample t-test of HG and LG in total scores of the
pretest…………………………………………………………………. 59
Table 4.18 The independent sample t-test of the HG’s and LG’s total scores of
the immediate posttest ……………………………………………...... 60
Table 4.19 The independent sample t-test of the HG’s and LG’s mean changes
between the pretest and the immediate posttest……………………..... 60
Table 4.20 The independent sample t-test of the HG’s and LG’s total scores of the
delayed posttest……………………………………………………….. 60
Table 4.21 The independent sample t-test of the HG’s and LG’s mean changes
between the immediate posttest and the delayed posttest……………. 61
Table 4.22 The independent sample t-test of the HG’s and LG’s mean changes
between the pretest and the delayed posttest…………………………. 61
Table 4.23 Students’ vocabulary learning behaviors……………………………... 63
Table 4.24 Students’ preferences for different teaching styles ………………….. 64
Table 4.25 The Wilcoxon signed ranks test for participants’ attitudes toward
different teaching styles in English learning………………………….. 65
Table 4.26 Participants’ general attitudes toward online explicit collocation
instruction…………………………………………………………….. 66
Table 4.27 Students’ attitudes toward the three different teaching methods……... 67
Table 4.28 The Wilcoxon signed ranks test for participants’ attitudes toward
different teaching styles in collocation learning.. ……………………. 67
Table 4.29 Students’ reasons in favor of the deductive method …………………. 68
Table 4.30 Students’ reasons in favor of the inductive method………………….. 69
Table 4.31 Students’ reasons for the combination method………………………. 70
Table 4.32 Students’ attitudes toward the design of online practice………………71
Table 4.33 Recommendations about the program design of online collocation
practice………………………………………………………………... 71
Table 4.34 Recommendations about the program design of the bilingual
concordancer………………………………………………………….. 72
Table 5.1 The summary on major findings of the study………………………… 79
























List of Figures
Page
Figure 2.1 TotalRecall with display of bilingual concordances………………….. 23
Figure 2.2 Format of students’ notebook for a noun head and five of
its verb collocates …………………………………………………….. 30
Figure 2.3 Semantic field analyses for the meanings of break, violate,
and infringe…………………………………………………………… 30
Figure 2.4 Collocational grid exercise for break, violate, and infringe………….. 31
Figure 2.5 Sports name and the verbs that go together…………………………... 31
Figure 4.1 The tracking record of students’ use of TotalRecall………………….. 73
Figure 4.2 Details of students’ concordancing record……………………………. 73
Figure 5.1 The interface of Tango, a collocation querying tool………………….. 81
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