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研究生:范嘉偉
研究生(外文):Chia-Wei Fan
論文名稱:無鉛/錫鉛銲點之金屬間化合物成長機制及潛變特性
論文名稱(外文):Growth Mechanism of Intermetallic Compound and Creep Behavior of Lead-free/Lead-containing Solder Joints
指導教授:葉銘泉葉銘泉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Chuen Yip
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:動力機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:173
中文關鍵詞:金屬間化合物擴散係數剪力推球強度破壞模式穩態潛變率
外文關鍵詞:intermetallic compounddiffusion coefficientball shear strengthfailure modesteady-state creep rate
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本文的研究範圍著重在IMC實驗及潛變實驗。IMC實驗主要為探討63Sn-37Pb、Sn-3.5Ag和Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu三種錫球迴焊至Au/Ni/Cu表面處理的銲墊後,銲點界面IMC層的成長狀況。除了將量測銲點經等溫時效作用後界面IMC層的成長厚度外,也將對銲點的剪力強度進行測試。藉由IMC的厚度量測來探討IMC的成長機制、擴散係數以及生成時所需克服的致動能,而銲點經剪力推球測試的結果則可做為評估銲點強度的參考,並再由銲點破壞模式分析更進一步了解銲點的破壞機制,最後針對IMC、剪力強度和破壞模式三者間的關係做深入探討。
無鉛銲點的靜態與潛變實驗主要探討Sn-3.5Ag及Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu二種銲點的靜態行為及潛變特性。靜態實驗包括比較銲點在25℃、75℃、125℃、150℃四個溫度下的靜態強度,並探討可能的變形機制,最後將負載及位移再換算成應力與應變,且藉由曲線嵌合得到近似的數值模型以便做為將來評估銲點強度的基準。潛變實驗則藉由靜態實驗求得的靜態強度做為選取應力等級時的參考,也是在25℃、75℃、125℃、150℃四個溫度下進行。潛變實驗的目的在於探討無鉛銲點在高溫時的塑性變形行為,並由實驗求得的應力指數及致動能來輔助了解銲點的潛變機制。使用的潛變模型共包括Arrhenius Power law、Dorn方程式及雙曲線正弦應力函數。
目錄
摘要…...………………………………………………………...………...I
目錄………………………………………………………...………........II
表目錄………………………………………………………...………...IV
圖目錄………………………………………………..............................VI
符號表………………………………………………..............................XI
一. 導論……………………..………………………..…………….........1
1.1電子構裝…………………………………………..……….….......1
1.2 印刷電路板組裝---BGA構裝技術…………………..………........3
1.3 綠色環保構裝技術­--無鉛銲料……………………..….................6
二. 研究動機…..…………………………………………………...........9
三. 文獻回顧……………………………………………………..…….11
3.1電解電鍍Ni/Au與無電鍍Ni/Au....……………………………….11
3.2 IMC對銲料之影響…………………………………………….….14
3.2.1 Sn-Pb銲料……………………………………………….....…14
3.2.2無鉛銲料..…..…………………………………………..……..16
3.3 IMC對UBM之影響………………………………………..……..21
3.4 IMC與尺寸效應...………………………………………………...24
3.5銲料的機械性質…………………………………………………...25
3.6銲料的潛變特性…………………………………………………...30
3.7銲料塊材與銲點之差異………..………………………………….34
四. 理論基礎……………………………………………………..…….36
4.1擴散理論及IMC成長….…………………………………..……...36
4.2潛變………………..………………………………………..……...39
4.3擴散與潛變………………..……………………………………….43
五. 研究方法……………………………………………………..…….47
5.1實驗設備……………………………………………………..…….47
5.2試片組成……………………………………………………..…….51
5.3 IMC實驗方法……………………………………………...……...52
5.3.1 IMC試片製作……………………………….………..….…...52
5.3.2 IMC成長實驗及剪力推球測試……………...………………53
5.4靜態與潛變實驗方法…………………………………..…..……...54
5.4.1潛變試片製作.………………………………………..….…...54
5.4.2潛變實驗……..……………….………………………..……...54
5.5金相觀察………………………………………..…………..……...55
六. 初步成果……………………………………………………..…….58
6.1 IMC實驗…………………………………………………..……...58
6.1.1 IMC成長機制…………………………………………..…….59
6.1.2銲點剪力強度與破壞機制…..…………..................................69
6.1.3三種銲點強度的比較及負載-位移曲線分析……..….……...77
6.2無鉛銲點靜態與潛變實驗…………..……………………..……...79
6.2.1靜態實驗…….…………………………………………..…….80
6.2.2潛變實驗……………………..…………..................................88
6.2.3 Sn-3.5Ag與Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點潛變機制…….…..…..……..97
6.2.3銲料塊材與銲點的差異………………….….…..…..………100
七. 結論………..………………………………………………..…….102
7.1 IMC實驗…………………………………………………..…...102
7.2靜態與潛變實驗…………………………………………..……...103
八. 參考文獻…………..…………………………………………..….104


表目錄
表1.1日本無鉛銲料時程表……………….……..………………..….110
表1.2 歐洲無鉛環境時程表………………………………………….110
表1.3 鉛在各產品中的消耗量……………………..….......................111
表1.4 主要的無鉛銲料組成…………………………..……...............111
表1.5 具潛力的無鉛銲料……………..…….......................................112
表2.1 重要的銲料性質………………………..……...........................112
表3.1 63Sn-37Pb與Sn-3.5Ag性質比較…………………..……......112
表3.2 迴焊用合金的比例分佈………………………………..……...113
表3.3 常用的Sn-Ag-Cu銲料組成…………………..…….................113
表3.4 Sn-Ag-Cu的專利問題………………………………….…..…..114
表3.5 Sn-Ag-Cu合金製造時允許的公差範圍………………..……...114
表5.1 PCB基材的主要特性………...……………………………..….114
表6.1 63Sn-37Pb (Au-Ni-Sn)的厚度成長……………….....................115
表6.2 63Sn-37Pb (Ni-Sn)的厚度成長………………….......................115
表6.3 63Sn-37Pb (Au-Ni-Sn)+(Ni-Sn)的總厚度…………………......115
表6.4 Sn-3.5Ag (Ni-Sn)的厚度成長……………….............................116
表6.5 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu (Cu-Ni-Au-Sn)的厚度成長………………….....116
表6.6擴散係數(D)與溫度的關係…………………...……………......117
表6.7 IMC之致動能與擴散常數……….………….............................117
表6.8銲點原始剪力強度(0小時)………………………………….....117
表6.9銲點經時效作用120小時後之剪力強度…….……………......118
表6.10銲點經時效作用480小時後之剪力強度…………...……......118
表6.11銲點經時效作用1000小時後之剪力強度…….......................118
表6.12 63Sn-37Pb銲點經等溫時效作用後的破壞面(EDX分析)…..119
表6.13各銲料之剪力模數…………………….…….……………......119
表6.14 Sn-3.5Ag 銲點的穩態潛變率平均值………..........................120
表6.15 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu 銲點的穩態潛變率平均值…………………..120
表6.16 Sn-3.5Ag在三種不同潛變模型下之材料參數表………........121
表6.17 Sn-3.5Ag應力指數及致動能之比較……………………........121
表6.18 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu在三種不同潛變模型下之材料參數..………..122
表6.19 Sn-Ag-Cu應力指數及致動能之比較………………………...122
表6.20銲點IMC實驗結果之比較…………………………………....123
表6.21銲點潛變實驗結果之比較……….…………………………...123



















圖目錄
圖1.1 電子構裝各階層示意圖………………….………………...….124
圖1.2 半導體晶片的向外連接……………………………..…….......124
圖1.3 UBM的組成結構……………………………..……..................125
圖1.4 TSMC之銲料凸塊製作流程圖……………………..................125
圖1.5 IC組裝流程圖……………..……………..…………………….126
圖1.6 PTH構裝元件截面圖………………………..……………..…..127
圖1.7引腳式表面黏著技術截面圖….………………..……...............127
圖1.8 PBGA構裝元件截面圖…………………………..……............127
圖1.9 FC-BGA構裝元件透視圖….…………………..……...............128
圖1.10 FC-BGA組裝流程圖………..…………………..……............128
圖2.1 CTE不匹配造成的熱應力示意圖………………………...…...128
圖4.1發生擴散需克服之能障(致動能)示意圖……….......................129
圖4.2 典型的潛變曲線……………………..……...............................129
圖4.3空缺擴散…………………………………………......................130
圖4.4間隙擴散…………….………………..……...............................130
圖4.5(a)晶界擴散(b)差排核擴散……………………..........................130
圖4.6材料的變形機制圖…...……………………...............................131
圖4.7擴散潛變………………..............................................................131
圖4.8差排潛變…………….………………..……...............................131
圖4.9差排滑移及爬升機制…………………………..........................132
圖4.10微細晶粒的金屬及合金在高溫下之潛變變形機制................132
圖4.11 63Sn-37Pb的變形機制圖..........................................................132
圖5.1 實驗流程圖…………………………………..……...................133
圖5.2 Instron 8848微拉伸試驗機……………………………....…….134
圖5.3 氣動式夾具 ………………………..…….................................134
圖5.4 微拉伸試驗機外掛溫/溼度控制箱……………..……..............134
圖5.5研磨/抛光機………………………………..……......................135
圖5.6高溫烤箱…………….….………..……................................... ..135圖5.7超音波清洗機…………….……...…………………..……..... ..135
圖5.8 Cu/Ni/Au表面處理……...…………………………..……..... ..135
圖5.9錫球的迴焊曲線…………………………….….........................136
圖5.10 剪力推球試片製作流程圖………………………..…….........136
圖5.11剪力推球試片示意圖……….……………………..…….........136
圖5.12 JEDEC STANDARD-BGA Ball Shear……………..……........137
圖5.13潛變試片示意圖………………................................................137
圖5.14潛變試片黏著至夾具之流程圖……………………..……......138
圖5.15潛變實驗的夾具圖…………………………………..……......138
圖5.16 鑲埋的流程圖……………………….……..............................139
圖6.1迴焊後的63Sn-37Pb銲點外觀圖………….…………..……....140
圖6.2 63Sn-37Pb經125℃時效作用之IMC厚度成長……….……...140
圖6.3 63Sn-37Pb經150℃時效作用之IMC厚度成長 ….…….........141
圖6.4 63Sn-37Pb經175℃時效作用之IMC厚度成長………..…….141
圖6.5 63Sn-37Pb銲點界面IMC的成份分析………………………...142
圖6.6 63Sn-37Pb銲點界面IMC的成份分析……...…….…..….........142
圖6.7 63Sn-37Pb銲點界面IMC層厚度與時效時間的關係…......….142
圖6.8迴焊後的Sn-3.5Ag銲點外觀圖………………..……................143
圖6.9 Sn-3.5Ag經125℃時效作用之IMC厚度成長…………...........143
圖6.10 Sn-3.5Ag經150℃時效作用之IMC厚度成長………….........144
圖6.11 Sn-3.5Ag經175℃時效作用之IMC厚度成長………….........144
圖6.12 Sn-3.5Ag銲點界面IMC的成份分析………………….……..145
圖6.13 Sn-3.5Ag銲點界面IMC層厚度與時效時間的關係…...........145
圖6.14迴焊後的Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點外觀圖…………………...…….146
圖6.15 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu經125℃時效作用之IMC厚度成長……….…146
圖6.16 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu經150℃時效作用之IMC厚度成長...………..147
圖6.17 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu經175℃時效作用之IMC厚度成長………….147
圖6.18 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點界面IMC的成份分析…...……………....148
圖6.19 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點界面IMC層厚度與時效時間的關係…...148
圖6.20擴散係數與溫度的關係…………………………………........149
圖6.21銲點界面IMC之致動能……………………………………....149
圖6.22三種銲點之界面IMC層在150℃之厚度成長比較圖……….150
圖6.23三種銲點之界面IMC層在175℃之厚度成長比較圖…….…150
圖6.24 63Sn-37Pb銲點剪力推球強度與時效時間的關係………….151
圖6.25 Sn-3.5Ag銲點剪力推球強度與時效時間的關係………........151
圖6.26 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點剪力推球強度與時效時間的關係………151
圖6.27 63Sn-37Pb在0小時時效作用(as-reflow)之破壞表面……….152
圖6.28 63Sn-37Pb在125℃時效作用下之破壞表面……………...…152
圖6.29 63Sn-37Pb在150℃時效作用下之破壞表面…...…………....152
圖6.30 63Sn-37Pb在175℃時效作用下之破壞表面……………..….152
圖6.31 63Sn-37Pb在175℃/1000小時之破壞面EDX分析…...….…153
圖6.32 63Sn-37Pb銲點經等溫時效作用後的破壞機制…………….153
圖6.33 Sn-3.5Ag在0小時時效作用之破壞表面………….................154
圖6.34 Sn-3.5Ag在125℃時效作用下之破壞表面……………….…154
圖6.35 Sn-3.5Ag在150℃時效作用下之破壞表面………………….154
圖6.36 Sn-3.5Ag在175℃時效作用下之破壞表面……...………..…154
圖6.37 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu在0小時時效作用之破壞表面.........................155
圖6.38 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu在125℃時效作用下之破壞表面.....................155
圖6.39 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu在150℃時效作用下之破壞表面…………….155
圖6.40 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu在175℃時效作用下之破壞表面…………….155
圖6.41 Sn-3.5Ag銲點在175℃/1000小時之破壞面EDX分析….….156
圖6.42 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點在175℃/1000小時之破壞面EDX分析..156
圖6.43三種銲點在125℃之剪力推球強度比較圖……..……………157
圖6.44三種銲點在150℃之剪力推球強度比較圖…………......……157
圖6.45三種銲點在175℃之剪力推球強度比較圖……………….….157
圖6.46 63Sn-37Pb銲點在125℃之剪力推球負載-位移曲線………..158
圖6.47 63Sn-37Pb銲點在150℃之剪力推球負載-位移曲線……..…158
圖6.48 63Sn-37Pb銲點在175℃之剪力推球負載-位移曲線……..…158
圖6.49 63Sn-37Pb銲點在120小時之剪力推球負載-位移曲線……159
圖6.50 63Sn-37Pb銲點在480小時之剪力推球負載-位移曲線……159
圖6.51 63Sn-37Pb銲點在1000小時之剪力推球負載-位移曲線…..159
圖6.52 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點迴焊後之試片……………………....……160
圖6.53 Sn-3.5Agu銲點(2x2陣列)之負載-位移曲線……………...…160
圖6.54 Sn-3.5Ag銲點之應力-應變曲線(shear)………...……………160
圖6.55 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點(2x2陣列)之負載-位移曲線(shear)…..…161
圖6.56 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點之應力-應變曲線(shear)…………...……161
圖6.57剪應變近似值(γ)與實際值(tan-1γ)之比較……………………162
圖6.58剪應變近似值(γ)與實際值(tan-1γ)之誤差……………………162
圖6.59拉伸試驗過程中,應力-應變曲線與試片變形之關係.………163
圖6.60一般金屬材料(鋼材)的應力-應變圖…………………...……163
圖6.61材料真應力-真應變曲線的型態……………………...………164
圖6.62 σ=Kεn的曲線圖………………...…..………………………164
圖6.63 Sn-3.5Ag與Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點剪力強度線性嵌合曲線….. 165
圖6.64 Sn-3.5Ag與Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點剪應力線性嵌合曲線…...…165
圖6.65 Sn-3.5Ag銲點潛變曲線(相同溫度/不同應力等級)…………166
圖6.66 Sn-3.5Ag銲點潛變曲線(相同應力等級/不同溫度)…....……167
圖6.67 Sn-3.5Ag銲點穩態潛變率與應力之間的關係圖……………168
圖6.68 Sn-3.5Ag銲點穩態應變率與溫度倒數之間的關係圖………168
圖6.69 Sn-3.5Ag銲點之主潛變曲線(Dorn方程式)……..……..……169
圖6.70 Sn-3.5Ag銲點之主潛變曲線(sinh模型)………………......…169
圖6.71 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點潛變曲線(相同溫度/不同應力等級)……170
圖6.72 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點潛變曲線(相同應力等級/不同溫度)……171
圖6.73 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點穩態潛變率與應力之間的關係圖………172
圖6.74 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點穩態潛變率與溫度倒數之間的關係圖…172
圖6.75 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點之主潛變曲線(Dorn方程式)…….…...…173
圖6.76 Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu銲點之主潛變曲線(sinh模型)..………………173
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