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研究生:廖偉全
研究生(外文):Wei-Chuan Liao
論文名稱:使用大撓度理論探討奈米探針之結構行為及其參數化設計
論文名稱(外文):Analysis and Design of the Nano-Probe Using Large Deflection Theory
指導教授:江國寧
指導教授(外文):Kuo-Ning Chiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:動力機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:原子力顯微鏡奈米探針解析度大撓度理論共振頻率彈簧常數有限元素法奈微機電加工製程掃瞄式探針微影術分子改質奈米探管陣列式探針接觸式非接觸式輕敲式
外文關鍵詞:Atomic Force MicroscopyNano-ProbeResolutionLarge Deflection TheoryResonant FrequencySpring ConstantFinite Element MethodFabrication of NENSScanning Probe LithographyMolecular ModificationCarbon Nano-TubeArray of TipsContact ModeNon-Contact ModeTapping Mode
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在奈米科技發展中,原子力顯微鏡(AFM)是目前最廣為應用之掃瞄式探針顯微鏡(SPM)。具備高解析度之原子力顯微鏡除了可進行奈米等級量測的功能外,尚可應用於製造奈米材料、奈米元件、奈米加工與高密度資料儲存技術。而探針為原子力顯微鏡極關鍵的部分,其基本結構是由基座、懸臂樑及附於樑前端之尖銳針尖所組成。其中,探針針尖必須達奈米等級並具高深寬比,方可獲得高解析度的樣品表面形貌,並依所需AFM的操作模式而選用適當之彈簧常數和共振頻率的懸臂樑探針。
彈簧常數與共振頻率乃原子力顯微鏡探針之基本機械性質。許多文獻在研究AFM探針之機械性質時,多是引用小撓度理論(Small Deflection Theory)之假設以求得。然小撓度理論假設只適用於當結構未發生幾何非線性(Geometry Nonlinear)之行為。隨著AFM的應用範圍越來越廣泛,使得其探針之幾何形狀或物理性質皆與傳統所應用有所不同,如:生物體之檢測需要幾何尺寸較小之探針、高解析度的表面形貌則可利用尖銳的針尖或增加外加力量來取得等。如此將使得探針結構發生幾何非線性之現象,則先前所考慮的小撓度理論將不再適用。故必須考慮懸臂樑之大撓度理論(Large Deflection Theory)假設,以求得探針結構發生幾何非線性現象時之物理與機械性質。所以本研究將使用大撓度撓度理論探討懸臂樑式探針之結構行為。分析結果發現,本研究所提出之大撓度理論假設,根據文獻之實驗驗證與有限元素分析,具相當可信度,可為吾人使用。其適用之範圍,乃施加之無因次負載在 內方適用。而當無因次負載為 ,大撓度理論與小撓度理論漸有分歧之趨勢。此外,本研究發現在進行奈米探針結構之有限元素分析時,皆需考慮幾何非線性行為,以避免此現象發生時,所產生的誤差。
AFM視其所應用的範圍,一般所使用之探針必須具有:(1)低彈簧常數,(2)高共振頻率和(3)高尖銳度之針尖與深寬比。不同的探針外型和尺寸,其機械性質也會隨之改變,同時亦會影響量測出的樣品表面形貌及特性。目前的探針大多是利用奈微機電加工技術進行製造,因為容易達到微小化的尺寸且可大量生產,具有不錯的良率。應用電腦模擬軟體來進行探針之機械特性分析為一準確、快速且經濟之方法。因此本研究將應用有限元素法對三種AFM之探針外型,包括:矩型樑、V型樑以及導邊V型樑,進行分析探針的幾何外型改變,對其機械特性的影響。有限元素分析結果發現, V型樑及導邊V型樑之參數,對機械性質之影響,呈不規則現象。
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a newly developed high- resolution microscopy technique, which is capable of measuring nano-scale patterns. In addition, AFM is very useful in nanofabrication, data storage and material analysis in the field of mechanical, chemical and biological engineering. A nano-probe is the most critical component of the AFM, which consists of three parts: a sharp tip, a cantilever beam and a supporting base. The tip must be sharp enough for high resolution of the surface topography. The cantilever beam must have an appropriate spring constant and a resonant frequency for the type of operation selected.
The fundamental mechanical parameters in the nano-probe for the AFM are its spring constant, its resonant frequency and the geometry of the probed object. Literature indicates that researchers in the past only considered the small deflection theory when analyzing the physical properties of the nano-probe; the small deflection theory is suitable only when the object being probed does not undergo non-linear geometrical change. However, the application of nano-probe is becoming more and more extensive. The geometric dimensions or physical properties of nano-probe are different from traditional applications, as in cases such as the measuring of the red corpuscle, which needs a probe of smaller size, and the ultra-high resolution topography, which requires higher applied force. Non-linear geometry will be involved; therefore, the small deflection theory will be no longer suitable. Simulation results indicate that the large deflection theory proposed in this investigation is more feasible than the small deflection theory. When the value of the non-dimensional load reaches 1.875, the large deflection theory will be suitable for the analysis of the nano-probe. The variation between the small deflection theory and the large deflection theory occurs when the non-dimensional load reaches 0.75. Furthermore, when we analyze the nano-probe structure by FEM, we must consider the nonlinear geometry behavior to prevent the inaccuracy of simulation results.
Depending on the various applications, the nano-probe structures used in the AFM should meet the following criteria: (1) good tip sharpness with a small radius apex, (2) small spring constant and (3) high resonant frequency. The mechanical parameters of a nano-probe will change with its shape and geometry, which affect the results of measurement. At present, the nano-probe is manufactured by micromachining technology. This method has many advantages, such as mass production, uniform geometry/properties and low cost. This research proposes the design rules of three types of nano-probes, the rectangular-shaped, V-shaped and chamfer V-shaped nano-probes for the AFM using the finite element method. Simulation results indicate that the parameters of V-shaped and chamfer V-shaped nano-probes have irregular effects on their mechanical properties.
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