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研究生:洪明郁
研究生(外文):Ming-Yu Hung
論文名稱:支援推測式多緒計算機結構的編譯器設計
論文名稱(外文):Compiler supports for Optimizing Speculative Multithreading Architecture
指導教授:李政崑
指導教授(外文):Jenq-Kuen Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:39
中文關鍵詞:推測式多緒計算機結構相依關係分析同名機率資訊分析平行化
外文關鍵詞:Speculative multithreadingDependence analysisProbabilistic points-to analysisParallelization
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  • 被引用被引用:0
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隨著VLSI技術的進步,在單一個處理器上已經可以加入許多特殊運作功能。支援推測式多緒計算機結構(SpMT)就是其中一種。它具有推測執行及多緒處理的能力,而且可以達到緒列間的平行處理。這樣的架構可以藉著推測且多緒平行處理,讓一般的程式達到執行效能的提升;但是要注意的是,SpMT架構存在著推測錯誤的可能性,所以當程式有高度的相依性存在時,效能不但不會提升,還有可能會有衰減的情形;因為當推測錯誤時,必須做回復的動作,而回復的程式必須先將已經存在的多緒列先刪除,再執行原來正常的程式。由此可知,量化程式間的相依性,對SpMT架構是很重要的;因為可以依照量化出來的結果,來決定是否讓此架構作推測性的執行,如此一來就可以防止發生效能衰減的情形。
此篇論文提出了一個量化迴圈程式之間相依性的方法,這樣的量化資訊可以用來判斷該迴圈是否合適使用推測性多緒執行。首先我們先提出一個方法可以蒐集程式間指標同名(alias)機率資訊的方法(PPA),再利用PPA推導出指標之間的相依機率。之後我們利用推導出來的相依機率資訊讓推測式多緒處理的機器能夠永遠都做出一個正確的決定,不至於發生效能衰減的情況。我們的實驗平台是SImulator for Multithreaded Computer Architectures (SIMCA)。利用SIMCA所提供的特殊安插指令來模擬SpMT的行為。
By the progress of VLSI technology, there are more and more features added in a single processor. Speculative multithreading (SpMT) architecture is one of them. It has speculative function and multithreading feature in a processor, and it can exploit thread-level parallelism that cannot be identified statically. Speedup can be obtained by speculatively executing threads in parallel that are extracted from a sequential program. However, performance degradation might occur if the threads are highly dependent. A recovery mechanism will be activated when a speculative thread violates the sequential semantics. The recovery action usually incurs a very high penalty, because it must squash all living threads before doing recovery code. Therefore, it is essential for SpMT to quantify the degree of dependences and to turn off speculation if the degree of loop carried dependence is over a certain threshold.
This paper presents a technique that quantitatively computes loop carried dependences and such information can be used to determine if loop iterations should be executed in parallel by speculative threads or not. This technique can be broken into two steps. First, probabilistic points-to analysis is performed to estimate the probabilities of points-to relationships in case there are pointer references in programs. That way, the degree of dependences between loop iterations is computed quantitatively. Second, experimental results show compiler-directed thread-level speculation based on the information gathered by this technique can guarantee the architecture to always do a right decision on the experimental platform, SImulator for Multithreaded Computer Architectures (SIMCA). SIMCA be modeled as SpMT architecture by inserting SIMCA specific instructions.
Acknowledgements i
Abstract ii
Contents iv
List of Figures vi
List of Tables vii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Thesis Overview 1
1.2 RelatedWork 4
2 Speculative Multithreading 6
2.1 Speculative Architecture 6
2.2 SimultaneousMultithreading Architecture 9
2.3 SpMT Architecture and Simulator 11
3 Data Dependence Probability 17
3.1 Definition of Data Dependence Probability 17
3.2 Optimization Target and CostModel 21
4 Experiments 24
4.1 Simulation 24
4.2 Experimental Results 24
5 Conclusion 29
5.1 Summary 29
5.2 FutureWork 30
Bibliography 31
Appendix 37
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