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研究生:吳明園
研究生(外文):Ming-Yaun Wu
論文名稱:以有機金屬氣相磊晶法研製1.3微米磷化銦鎵量子位障之磷砷化銦鎵應力型多重量子井雷射二極體
論文名稱(外文):1.3 μm GaInAsP Strained Multiple Quantum Well Laser Diodes with GaInP Quantum Barrier Grown by MOCVD
指導教授:吳孟奇
指導教授(外文):Meng-Chyi Wu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:電子工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:半導體雷射電子阻擋層磷砷化銦鎵/磷化銦砷化鋁鎵銦/磷化銦有機金屬氣相磊晶法
外文關鍵詞:semiconductor laserelectron stop layerGaInAsP/InPAlGaInAs/InPMOCVD
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光纖通訊系統需要之發光源是半導體雷射最重要應用之一,而1.3微米與1.55微米之雷射二極體是目前用於長距離通訊系統可獲得之光源。另外在標準矽光纖內,1.3微米波長有低損失與可忽略色散特點。其中,磷砷化銦鎵/磷化銦系列在材料成長與元件結構上,尤其在多次磊晶成長與光積體元件等方面,有很大之變通性,是目前長波長雷射之主流材料。然而這材料有較小導電帶差,嚴重影響溫度特性,因此改善1.3微米磷砷化銦鎵半導體雷射之元件特性,是目前非常重要且刻不容緩之研究工作。
本論文中,先探討1.3微米磷砷化銦鎵/磷砷化銦鎵壓力型多重量子井脊狀波導型雷射二極體之主動層材料特性。由光激光譜量測,可知最佳主動層條件,是4 nm寬量子井與10 nm寬位障。接著,將之製作為3.5微米脊狀寬雷射元件。在連續電流注入條件下,900微米共振腔之元件可得920 A/cm2之無限臨界電流密度、60 K之特徵溫度(或可操作到75℃)及發光頻譜之紅移率為0.30 nm/℃。
為改善元件特性,繼續在未摻雜分離局限異質結構內引入磷化銦鎵量子位障。經由光激光譜分析,可知最佳磷化銦鎵量子位障之鎵組成、厚度及對數分別為0.09、5 nm及一對。在p邊分離局限異質接面之最佳結構可產生最小半高寬為43.1 meV,而製作為600微米共振腔之元件有最低之臨界電流為23 mA與特徵溫度為52 K。同樣,900微米共振腔之元件有較小之無限臨界電流密度為690 A/cm2、相近之特徵溫度為57 K(或可操作到85℃)及紅移率為0.28 nm/℃。
另外,針對1.3微米砷化銦鎵鋁/砷化銦鎵鋁應力補償型多重量子井漸變折射率分離局限異質接面雷射二極體,提出一種改進之結構,即結合磷砷化銦鎵與砷化銦鎵鋁漸變組成層,分別被引入在上層(p型)與下層(n型)披覆層間,以期加強載子注入效應而降低臨界電流,且改善其它元件特性。此結構之脊狀型雷射二極體可得較低臨界電流為9 mA、較高特徵溫度為80 K、較小紅移率為0.4 nm/℃及較高鬆弛振盪頻率為8.14 GHz。若不考慮耦合損失與遲滯因子,則3-dB頻寬更達到13.1 GHz。
One of the most important applications for semiconductor lasers is in the field of optical fiber communications. Separately, the 1.3 and 1.55 μm LDs are currently available light sources for long-span communication systems. Further, 1.3-μm-wavelength LDs have lower loss and negligible dispersion for standard silica fibers. GaInAsP/InP series is the most popular material for the long-wavelength lasers attributed to its very large flexibility in material growth and device structure, especially in the multi-step growth and photonic integrated circuits. However, this material has poor temperature characteristics attributed to smaller conduction-band offset. Therefore, it is very important to significantly improve the device performances for 1.3 μm GaInAsP LDs for fiber communication systems.
In this dissertation we first describe the 1.3 μm GaInAsP/GaInAsP CS-MQW RWG LDs grown by MOCVD technique. Observed via the PL spectra, the optimum widths of well and barrier layers are 4 nm and 10 nm, respectively. These as-cleaved 3.5-μm-ridge LDs under the CW condition exhibit an infinite threshold current density of 920 kA/cm2, a characteristic temperature of 60 K (or up to 75℃), and a red-shift rate of 0.30 nm/℃ at a cavity length of 900 μm.
We next demonstrate the 1.3 μm GaInAsP/GaInAsP CS-MQW RWG LDs with GaInP-QB layers in the undoped SCH regions. Through PL measurements, the optimum Ga composition of GaxIn1-xP-QB, GaInP-QB thickness, and pair number of the GaxIn1-xP-QB are 0.09, 5-nm-thick, and one pair, respectively. The optimum GaInP-QB structure in the p-side SCH region exhibits the narrowest PL FWHM of 43.1 meV, and the lowest threshold current of 23 mA and the characteristic temperature of 52 K for the as-cleaved 3.5-μm-ridge LDs at a cavity length of 600 μm. Similarly, the LDs exhibit a lower infinite threshold current density of 690 A/cm2, a comparable characteristic temperature of 57 K (or up to 85℃), and a red-shift rate of 0.28 nm/℃ at a cavity length of 900 μm.
On the other hand, we also present a novel structure for the 1.3 μm AlGaInAs/AlGaInAs SC-MQW GRINSCH LDs with the GaInAsP and AlGaInAs GC layers. This new LD structure exhibits a lower threshold current of 9 mA, a higher characteristic temperature of 80 K, a little red-shift rate of 0.4 nm/℃, and a higher relaxation frequency of 8.14 GHz. Without the coupling loss and damping factor, the 3-dB bandwidth of 13.1 GHz can be achieved.
Content
Abstract (in Chinese) ………………………………………………... I
Abstract (in English) ………………………………………………. III
Content (in Chinese) ……………………………………………....... V
Acknowledgement (in Chinese) …………………………………… VI
Content (in English) …………….……………………………….... VII
Table Captions ..…………………………………………………....... X
Figure Captions …………………………………………………..... XI
Chapter 1 Introduction
1-1 Background ……………………………………………. 1
1-2 Outline of this Dissertation ……………………………. 5
Chapter 2 Experiment and Theory
2-1 MOCVD Growth System ……………………………… 8
2-2 Material Characterizations …………………………… 13
2-3 Device Fabrication …………………………………… 15
2-4 Theory Review ……………………………………….. 17
Chapter 3 1.3 μm GaInAsP/GaInAsP Compressive Strain Multiple Quantum Well Laser Diodes
3-1 Introduction …………………………………………... 27
3-2 Design Consideration and Material Characterization ... 28
3-3 Device Fabrication and Characteristics ………………. 33
3-4 Summary ……………………………………………... 36
Chapter 4 1.3 μm GaInAsP/GaInAsP Compressive Strain Multiple Quantum Well Laser Diodes with the GaInP Quantum Barrier
4-1 Introduction …………………………………………... 37
4-2 Growth and Characterization of GaInP-QB Layers ….. 39
4-3 Device Fabrication and Characteristics ………………. 42
4-4 Summary ……………………………………………... 46
Chapter 5 1.3 μm AlGaInAs/AlGaInAs Strained Compensated Multiple Quantum Well Laser Diodes with/without GaInAsP and AlGaInAs Graded-Composition Layers
5-1 Introduction …………………………………………... 48
5-2 Experiment …………………………………………… 49
5-3 Results and Discussion ……………………………….. 52
5-4 Summary ……………………………………………... 54
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Studies
6-1 Conclusions …………………………………………... 55
6-2 Future Studies ………………………………………… 56
References …………………………………………………………... 58
Tables ……………………………………………………………….. 65
Figures ……………………………………………………………… 69
Appendix …………………………………………………………... 125
Publication List ………………………………………………….... 128
Autobiography …………….…..………………………………….. 131
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