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研究生:楊奇達
研究生(外文):Chyi-Da Yang
論文名稱:光纖通訊用高速高效率砷化銦鎵P-I-N檢光器
論文名稱(外文):High Bandwidth with High Efficiency InGaAs P-I-N Photodiodesfor Optical Fiber Communications
指導教授:吳孟奇
指導教授(外文):Meng-Chyi Wu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:電子工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:邊縁耦合式感測器自行終止氧化物延磨自行對準氏擴散晶相蝕刻光漏斗波導
外文關鍵詞:EC-PDSTOPSADcrystallographic etchinglight funnelwaveguide
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在高速、高密度的光纖通訊系統中,單石化砷化銦鎵檢光器陣列,相較於複合式陣列,提供更一致、更可靠的檢光器特性以及較低廉的生產成本。而其中邊緣入射型檢光器,在與邊緣發射型雷射或波導整合時,比起傳統面入射型檢光器,可採用更簡易的整合方式,因而得以進一步降低整體成本。然除受磊晶品質、元件製程影響外,邊緣入射型檢光器的光入射面尚易受元件後續處理所影響,諸如劈裂、鍍抗反射層,以至於儲放環境等。是以此類陣列的實現,隨著陣列中的檢光器數目增加而大幅趨於困難。截至目前,相關文獻以至於技術上的資訊因而十分稀少。
本研究將計畫以有機金屬氣相沈積技術成長高品質磊晶結構,並已現有檢光器前續製程,搭配將研發之光耦合面處理製程,以砷化銦鎵邊緣耦合型p-i-n檢光器陣列為研製目標。
As wide-bandwidth, high-capacity communications via optical fiber is demanded, high-speed optoelectronic devices for message transmission and reception play major roles in promoting overall system performances. In this dissertation, InGaAs edge-coupled photodiodes (EC-PDs) with a light funnel integrated (LIFI) in front of the coupling aperture, called LIFI EC-PD, have successfully fabricated based on the self-terminated oxide polish (STOP), the crystallographic slope etching of InP, and the self-aligned diffusion (SAD) techniques. The LIFI EC-PD presents not only a lower dark current density (~4.4 mA/cm2) but also a higher responsivity (~0.4 A/W) than that of the mesa EC-PD (27 mA/cm2 and 0.26 A/W, respectively). Furthermore, the thick oxide film serves as the funnel in front of active-region aperture to enhance the coupling efficiency and to lower the bonding pad capacitance down to 50 fF. The lowered bonding pad capacitance can be beneficial in designing a device with a higher transit-time-limited frequency response of beyond 30 GHz. The LIFI EC-PD with a 1-µm thick absorption layer exhibits a 3-dB bandwidth of 20 GHz and a responsivity of ~0.4 A/W. A further improved novel high-speed waveguide photodetectors (WGPDs) integrated with a light input tapered-SiOx facet exhibiting extremely low dark current density and high responsivity characteristics of 0.74 A/W from 0.39 A/W of the device without light input tapered-SiOx facet has successfully been developed. The novel WGPDs can have an enlarged coupling aperture with responsivities and reduced dissipative absorption, which result from the reflection of an InP-slope and a p-metal, and thus permit more light to enter its absorption layer. Accordingly, such ground-breaking WGPD, exhibiting a 3-dB bandwidth of 20 GHz with a coupling efficiency of 0.74 A/W at a wavelength of 1.3-μm under 132.5 μW illuminations, can explore a better manufacturing competence.
CONTENTS
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
Contents…………………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
FIGURE CAPTIONS…………………………………………………………Ⅴ
TABLE CAPTIONS………………………………………………………………Ⅶ
LIST OF SYMBOLS………………………………………………………………Ⅷ
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO InGaAs P-I-N PHOTODIODES and APPLICATION……1
CHAPTER 2
THEORETICAL ANALYSES OF InP/InGaAs/InP DOUBLE-HETEROJUNCTION P-I-N PHOTODIODE………………………………………………………………8
2-1 Dark Current………………………………………………………………8
2-1-1 Main Determination Among These Components……………9
2-1-2 Surface Recombination Current Caused Through Density of State…………………………………………………………………11
2-1-3 Density of States Contribute to Drift Current…………………15
2-2 Quantum Efficiency……………………………………………………19
2-3 Dynamic Response……………………………………………………21
CHAPTER 3
EDGE (I-SIDE ILLUMINATED)-COUPLED GaInAsP/InGaAs/InP DOUBLE-HETEROJUNCTION P-I-N PHOTODIODE WITH LIGHT INPUT TAPERED-SiOx FACET OF InP CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC SLOPE BASED ON N+ InP SUBSTRATE…………………..……………………………………………27
3-1. The Effectiveness of the Light Funnel Waveguide………………28
3-1-1 Device fabrication………………………………………………29
3-1-2 DC characterizations…………………………………………32
3-1-3 Dynamic response calculation………………………………38
3-1-4 Effectiveness of slope in front of photodiode……………39
3-2. Improved Fabrication---Novel Waveguide Photodetector (WGPD) ………………………………………………………………39
3-2-1 Device fabrication………………………………………………42
3-2-2 DC characterizations…………………………………………45
3-2-3 Dynamic response calculation………………………………53
3-2-4 Effectiveness of Improved Fabrication……………………54
CHAPTER 4
FUTURE WORKS……………………………………………………….56
4-1. FUTURE WORK OF EDGE-COUPLED P-I-N PHOTODIODE………56

4-2. Miniature of surface (P-side illuminated)- coupled resonant-cavity -enhanced (RCE) InP/InGaAs/InP Heterojunctions photodiodes..………………59
4-2-1. Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) simulation and epitaxy…59
4-2-1-1 Simulation of Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR)………59
4-2-1-2 Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) epitaxy……………61
4-2-1-3 The epitaxy of InGaAs p-i-n photodetector……………62
4-2-2. Lift off fabrication and RCE photodiode process……………62
4-2-2-1 InGaAs p-i-n photodetector lift off on DBR GaAs substrate…………………………………………………………62
4-2-2-2 Process of RCE p-i-n photodetector……………………63
4-2-3. Discussion of a DBR epitaxial wafer comparing the analytic information simulated from the transmission matrix method………………………………………………..………………64
4-2-3-1 Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) ………………………64
4-2-3-2 Epitaxial Lift Off (ELO) ………………………………………65
4-2-3-3 Electrical analysis of the ELO photodetector…………65
REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………67
PUBLICATION LIST……………………………………………………………..,110
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