跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.237.6.124) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/24 02:07
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:林哲毅
研究生(外文):Che-I Lin
論文名稱:具高動態範圍之4T主動式影像感測器元件及操作方式
論文名稱(外文):A Four Transistor CMOS Active Pixel Sensor with High Dynamic Range Operation
指導教授:金雅琴
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:電子工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:50
中文關鍵詞:主動式影像感測器動態範圍
外文關鍵詞:CMOS APSCMOS imagerCMOS image sensordynamic range
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:444
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:77
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
因為製程便宜,加上跟金氧半的製程有高度的整合性,金氧半電晶體主動式影像感測器在影像感測器領域的發展上已經越來越重要,並且在低階影像感測器應用方面已經有取代CCD的趨勢。目前金氧半電晶體主動式影像感測器所遇到的主要問題有高雜訊、暗電流、低動態範圍。在暗電流方面已經可以由製程的改進來完成,所以動態範圍的提升成為主要的議題。本篇論文提出一個可以操作在高動態範圍的新型主動式影像感測器,並且在新的架構與操作下,輸出方式並不需要經過特別的設計。新型主動式影像感測器元件的架構是在傳統的元件上多加入一顆電晶體。從實驗的結果可以看出,使用一個升壓的電源操作下可以達到高動態範圍,並且改變升壓電源的操作可以設計出不同的輸出曲線。從量測的結果發現,在電路中有電洞升級的現象,利用這一個現象可以做一些類比的影像處理動作。除此之外,我們可以利用電洞的收集來做另外一種高動態範圍的操作,主要有兩個方式。一個是在照光週期中,分別有電子與電洞的收集週期,改變電子與電洞的收集週期可以做不同程度的動態範圍的延伸。另外一個是在照光的週期中,電子與電洞同時收集,這樣的操作有兩個好處,一個是有較大的靈敏度,另外可以改變電洞的收集程度來做不同動態範圍的延伸。
A new CMOS APS using standard CMOS logic technology is proposed to allow high dynamic range operation. The new cell is constructed by incorporating one additional transistor to the conventional three transistor APS. The experimental results demonstrate that extended dynamic range is obtained when operates with a ramped reference voltage source. The cell offers flexible nonlinear transfer characteristics, which can be designed by modifying the operational timing diagram. Furthermore, charge collection on the parasitic capacitor allows for the use of the signal due to hole accumulation. An alternative operation of this cell is also proposed to provide enhanced characteristics in both its sensitivity and dynamic range.
LIST OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT………………………………………………...………………………..II
ACKNOWLEGEMENT……………………………………….…………………..IV
LIST OF CONTENTS…………………………………….………………………...V
LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………….…..VI
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION………………………….…………………..1
CHAPTER TWO RESEARCH OF HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE IMAGE SENSOR……………………………………………………………………………..3
2.1 Characteristics of a High Dynamic Range Sensor…………………………...3
2.2 Review of Prior Approaches…………………………………………………3
2.2.1 Logarithmic-Mode APS……………………………………………...3
2.2.2 CMOS APS with Conditional Reset………………………………….3
2.2.3 Fused Image…………………………………………………………..4
CHAPTER THREE CELL STRUCTURE AND OPERATION SCHEME…..13
3.1 Four Transistor APS…………………………………………………………13
3.2 High Dynamic Range Operations Using a Ramp Voltage…………………..13
3.3 High Dynamic Range Operations Using Hole Collection…………………...14
CHAPTER FOUR MEASUREMENT RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS……....35
4.1 Test-Key Design and Measurement Setup…………………………….…….35
4.2 Experimental Results…………………………………………………...……35
4.2.1 Experimental Results of High Dynamic Range Operations Using a Ramp Voltage…………………………………………………………………………..35
4.2.2 Experimental Results of High Dynamic Range Operations Using Hole Collection……………………………………………………………………….36
4.3 Performance Comparison…………………………………………………….36
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS…………………………………………..…...48
REFERENCES…………………………………………..………………………….49
[1]. B. Ackland and A. Dickinson, “Camera on a chip,” ISSCC, pp. 22-25, 1996.
[2]. E.R. Fossum, “CMOS image sensors: Electronic camera-on- a-chip,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 44, pp. 1689-1698, Oct. 2001.
[3]. P. Lee, R. Gee, M. Guidash, T. Lee, and E. R. Fossum, “An active pixel sensor fabricated using CMOS/CCD process technology,” presented at 1995 IEEE workshop on CCD’s and Advanced Image Sensors, Dana Point, CA, Apr. 20-22, 1995.
[4]. H. S. P. Wong, R. T. Chang, E. Crabbe, and P. D. Agnello, “CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensors Fabricated Using a 1.8-V, 0.25-um CMOS Technology,” IEEE, Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 45, pp.889-894, April 1998.
[5]. S. Mendis, S. E. Kenmeny, R. Gee, B. Pain, and E. R. Fossum, “Process in CMOS active pixel image sensors,” Charge-Coupled Devices and Solid State Optical Sensors IV, Proc. SPIE, vol.2172, pp.19-29, 1994.
[6]. J. Woo, D. J. Min, J. Kim, and W. Kim, “A 600-dpi capacitive finger-print sensor chip and image synthesis technique,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.34, pp. 469-475.
[7]. J. Huppertz, R. Hauschild, B. J. Hosticka, T. Kneip, S. Muller, and M. Schwarz, ‘‘Fast CMOS imaging with high dynamic range,’’ in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Charge-Coupled Devices and Advanced Image Sensors, 1997.
[8]. S. Decker, R. McGrath, K. Brehmer, and C. Sodini, ‘‘A 2563256 CMOS imaging array with wide dynamic range pixels and column parallel digital output,’’ in Proc. ISSCC 1998, pp. 176–177 1998.
[9]. A. Deval, A. Khan, and L. A. Akers, ‘‘locally adaptive active pixel sensors,’’ in Proc. of ISCAS 1997, Vol. 1, pp. 685–688, 1997.
[10]. O. Yadid-Pecht, B. Pain, C. Staller, C. Clark, and E. Fossum, ‘‘CMOS active pixel sensor star tracker with regional electronic shutter,’’ IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 32~2, 285–288, 1997.
[11]. Hsiu-Yu Cheng and Ya-Chin King, “A CMOS image sensor with dark-current cancellation and dynamic sensitivity operations,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 50, pp.91-95, Jan. 2003.
[12]. D.X.D. Yang, A.E. Gamal, B. Fowler, and H. Tian, “A 640×512 CMOS image sensor with ultrawide dynamic range floating-point pixel-level ADC,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 34, Issue: 12, pp.1821 - 1834, Dec. 1999.
[13]. S. Decker, R. McGrath, K. Brehmer, and C. Sodini, “A 256×256 CMOS imaging array with wide dynamic range pixels and column-parallel digital output,” Solid-State Circuits Conference, Digest of Technical Papers 45th ISSCC 1998 IEEE International, 5-7 pp.176 - 177, Feb. 1998.
[14]. Chamberlain, S.G.; Lee, J.P.Y, “A novel wide dynamic range silicon photodetector and linear imaging array,” Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of, vol. 19, pp. 41-48, Feb 1984.
[15]. Orly Yaddid-Pecht, “Wide-Dynamic Range Sensor,” Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, pp.1650-1660, October, 1999.
[16]B. Dierickx, D. Scheffer, G. Meynants, W. Ogiers, and J. Vlummens, “Random addressable active pixel image sensors,” Proc. SPIE 2950, pp.2-7, 1996.
[17]. Sung-Hyun Yang, and Kyoung-Rok Cho, “High Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensor with Conditional Reset,” IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 2002.
[18]. David X.D Yang, Abbas El Gamal, Boyd Fowler, Hui Taing, “A 640x512 CMOS Image Sensor with Ultra Wide Dynamic Range Floating-Point Pixel-Level ADC,” ISSCC, Digest of Technical Papers, Session 17, 1999.
[19]. Y. P. Orly, “Wide-dynamic-range sensors,” Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, pp.1650-1660, October 1999.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 曹中瑋(2000)。完形治療取向的夢工作。輔導季刊,36(4),56-59。
2. 曹中瑋(1997)。情緒的認識與掌控。學生輔導雙月刊,51,26-39。
3. 張玉鈴(1997)。「形」與「背景」概念在完形治療法中的重要性。諮商與輔導,143,17-22。
4. 高明薇(2001)。完形團體的過程與介入技巧。諮商與輔導,183,9-11。
5. 施香如(1993)。從完形治療法的觀點談諮商過程中的「覺察」。諮商與輔導,91,31-34。
6. 林香君(1997)。在「破車輪」與「劇場」之間﹘完形團體焦點的選擇。諮商與輔導,143,11-16。
7. 李佩怡(1998)。以完形治療法的「接觸」概念看死亡與瀕死的悲傷現象:對助人工作者的啟思初探(上)。諮商與輔導,153,2-9。
8. 郭志通(1998)。離婚父母應如何修補孩子破碎的心。諮商與輔導,148,11-14。
9. 陳怡君(2001)。覺察在完形諮商中的角色、地位及其應用。諮商與輔導,183,6-8。
10. 陳慶福、鍾寶珠(1998)。單親與雙親兒童在自我觀念、行為困擾與學業表現之研究。屏東師院國民教育研究所論文集,2,1-35。
11. 陳錫銘(1992a)。健康的完形經驗過程與抗拒接觸的不良形式。諮商與輔導,77,33-35。
12. 陳錫銘(1992b)。從完形治療法談此時此刻的覺察。輔導月刊,28(3),1-7。
13. 馮文秀(2001)。不同原因、時間單親家庭學生在自我概念與生活適應的比較研究。翠崗學報,4,49-85。
14. 楊妙芬(1993)。單親兒童團體輔導。國教天地,101,11-18。
15. 鄔佩麗(1998)。從失落經驗看單親家庭因應策略之研究。教育心理學報,30(1),23-50。