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研究生:吳昆諺
研究生(外文):Kun-Yan Wu
論文名稱:變頻器系統之強健波形控制及三相模組化組接
論文名稱(外文):ON THE ROBUST WAVEFORM CONTROL AND THREE-PHASE MODULAR CONNECTION FOR INVERTERS
指導教授:廖聰明廖聰明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang-Ming Liaw
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:162
中文關鍵詞:變頻器組接
外文關鍵詞:inverter
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:7
  • 點閱點閱:190
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:59
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
變頻器相當廣泛地應用於許多電力電子設備,如不斷電電源供應器、電子式照明設備及馬達驅動系統等,因應不同負載用電特性及要求,變頻器須妥善控制其輸出品質,有些場合甚至須規範具有良好之輸出電壓波形。本論文旨在從事變頻器之強健波形控制及由單相模組組接成 -接三相變頻器研究。首先探究變頻器之電路、切換控制、關鍵參數之影響及補償控制,以及其他一些實務考量事宜。接著組立建構單相變頻器模組,其電路組成元件、輸出濾波器、保護電路等之分析與設計於文中均有詳細介紹。在控制方面,先設計一雙可調度電流控制脈寬調制切換機構,使濾波電感電流具有緊密之命令追控特性。再研擬提出一電壓強健波形控制機構,由於精密之動態模式難以獲得,所提控制機構各組成部份之參數係以直覺式定之。在決定了迴授控制器之後,先在所定工作點線上調整命令前向控制器之轉移函數以得到最佳之波形追控特性,再將此轉移函數複製設定成強健擾動前向控制器之反模式,藉擾動消去補償控制技術以得強健之波形控制。為進一步精進波形控制,最後又輔加所提之強健波形補償控制。
在建構了具有優越輸出特性之單相變頻器後,將其模組組接成一V-接三相變頻器,除上述之控制組態之外,再輔加一強健平衡波形控制器。由合成第三相之波形與其命令間之誤差,經加權後產生之補償信號加至另兩相之命令從事平衡補償。實測評估顯示,在線性負載下所得之三相變頻器輸出電壓品質尚可。唯隨非線性負載成份之增加,波形之失真亦漸加大,此方面之改善研究值得繼續從事。
The inverter is extensively employed in many power electronic systems, such as uninterruptible power supplies, electronic ballasts and motor drives. To meet the required characteristics of different kinds of loads, suitable power quality control for inverter output is indispensable, even for its, voltage waveform. This thesis is mainly concerned with the study of robust waveform control of inverter and the establishment of a V-connected three-phase inverter using two single-phase modules. First, the circuit, switching control and some practical consideration issues of the inverter are studied. Then the single-phase inverter is designed and implemented. The designs of circuit constituted components, protection circuit and output filter are all introduced in detail. As to the control aspect, a two-degrees-of-freedom (2DOF) current-controlled PWM scheme is first designed to let the filter inductor current closely follow its command. Then a voltage robust waveform control scheme is designed. After determining the feedback controller parameters by trial-and-error, the intuitive approach is employed to design the other constituted controllers. Under the chosen operating point, the transfer function of voltage command feedforward controller is on-line adjusted to yield excellent waveform tracking performance. Then this transfer function is used as the inverse model being set in the robust disturbance feedforwad controller. Finally, a robust waveform controller is proposed to eliminate the waveform tracking error.
Having established the single-phase inverter with good voltage waveform control performance, two modules are connected to form a V-connected three-phase inverter. In addition to the control schemes developed for single-phase module, a robust balance waveform controller is further proposed. A weighted robust compensation signal yielded from the voltage waveform tracking error of the third phase, and it is added to the waveform commands of the other two phases for performing the imbalance compensation control. The experimental results show that rather good three phase output voltage waveforms can be obtained under linear load, but the distortion will become heavier for the increase of nonlinear load component. The improvement control is considered rather difficult and thus worth further studying.
誌謝…………………………………………………………………... I
中文摘要……………………………………………………………... II
英文摘要……………………………………………………………... III
目錄…………………………………………………………………... IV
圖形明細表…………………………………………………………... VI
表格明細表…………………………………………………………... XIV
第一章、 簡介………………………………………………………. 1
第二章、 變頻器基本實務………………………………………….. 5
2.1 簡介…………………………………………………. 5
2.2 變頻器之切換控制及頻譜分析……………………. 5
2.2.1 直接責任週期電壓控制…………………….. 5
2.2.2 修正式PWM…………………………..…….. 10
2.2.3 電流控制模式……………………………….. 11
2.3 變頻器之電力品質分析……………………………. 14
2.4 變頻器之實務特性…….…………………………… 16
2.4.1 變頻器之關鍵參數及其折衷考量………….. 16
2.4.2 空白時間之影響及補償控制……………….. 19
2.4.3 直流鏈之漣波特性….………………………. 23
2.4.4 功率潮流控制……………………………….. 25
2.5 三相變頻器……………….………………………… 25
第三章、 單相變頻器之研製………………………………………. 28
3.1 簡介…………………………………………………. 28
3.2 所提變頻器之系統組成……………………………. 28
3.3 輸出濾波器之設計….……………………………… 36
3.4 性能評估:實測結果………………………………. 45
第四章、 所提之變頻器強健波形控制機構…..………….………... 55
4.1 簡介………………….……………………………… 55
4.2 控制架構及問題描述………………………..……... 55
4.3 電流控制迴路……………………………..………... 58
4.4 電壓控制迴路…….…………………………..…...... 61
4.4.1 迴授控制器………………………………….. 61
4.4.2 命令前向控制器…………………………….. 63
4.4.3 電壓強健擾動前向控制器………………….. 63
4.4.4 電壓波形強健控制器……………………….. 63
4.5 性能評估:不具輸出變壓器…………………….…. 64
4.5.1 線性負載(純電阻)…………………………… 66
4.5.2 非線性負載(橋式整流電容濾波負載)……… 75
4.6 性能評估:具輸出變壓器……………………….…. 96
4.6.1 線性負載(純電阻)…………………………… 96
4.6.2 非線性負載(橋式整流電容濾波負載)……… 102
第五章、 三相變頻器之模組化組接……………………….…….… 127
5.1 簡介…………………………………………………. 127
5.2 共同直流鏈單相變頻器之連接限制...…………….. 127
5.3 V-接三相變頻器之系統組成.………..………..…. 133
5.4 三相電壓波形之補償控制………………………… 136
5.5 性能評估:線性負載(純電阻)………………….…. 136
5.6 性能評估:非線性負載(橋式整流電容濾波負載)… 144
第六章、 結論……………………………………………………….. 152
參考資料…………………………………………………………….... 153
A. Single phase inverter
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B. PWM and current controls
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[33] T. H. Chen and C. M. Liaw, “Vibration acceleration control of an inverter-fed electrodynamic shaker,” IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 60 –70, 1999.
[34] B. J. Kang and C. M. Liaw, “Robust hysteresis current-controlled PWM scheme with fixed switching frequency,” IEE Proceedings Electric Power Applications, vol. 148, no. 6, pp. 503-512, 2001.
C. Voltage and waveform control
[35] C. Rech, H. Pinheiro, H. A. Grundling, H. L. Hey and J. R. Pinheiro, “Analysis and design of a repetitive predictive-PID controller for PWM inverters,” Power Electronics Specialists Conference, vol. 2, pp. 986-991, 2001.
[36] K. Guo, W. Xuejuan and J. Chen, “PWM VSI waveform control based on feedback and feedforward technology,” International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems, vol. 2, pp. 638-642, 2001.
[37] J. M. Guerrero, L. G. de Vicuna, J. Miret, J. Matas, and M. Castilla, “Integral control technique for single-phase UPS inverter,” International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, vol. 4, pp. 257-261, 2002.
[38] M. Lopez, J. L. Garcia de Vicuna, M. Castilla, J. Matas and O. Lopez, “Control design for parallel-connected DC-AC inverters using sliding mode control,” Eighth International Conference on Power Electronics and Variable Speed Drives, vol. 475, pp. 457-460, 2000.
[39] K.Y. Cho, “Control method of PWM inverter for driving LSM to reduce the burden of output transformer,” IEE Proceedings Electric Power Applications, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 88-96, 2003.
[40] S. J. Chiang, T. L. Tai and T. S. Lee, “Variable structure control of UPS inverters,” IEE Proceedings Electric Power Applications, vol. 145, no. 6, pp. 559-567, 1998.
[41] O. Kukrer, H. Komurcugil and N. S. Bayindir, “Control strategy for single-phase UPS inverters,” IEE Proceedings Electric Power Applications, vol. 150, no. 6, pp. 743-746, 2003.
[42] H. C. Chen, S. H. Li and C. M. Liaw, “Switch-mode rectifier with digital robust ripple compensation and current waveform controls,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 560-566, 2004.
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[47] T. Senjyu and K. Uezato, “Sinusoidal voltage controller for uninterruptible power supply by robust control,” Conference Record of the Power Conversion Conference, pp. 200-205, 1993.
D. Dead time compensation
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[50] J. W. Choi and S. K. Sul, “New dead time compensation eliminating zero current clamping in voltage-fed PWM inverter,” Conference Record of the 1994 IEEE Industry Applications, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 977-984, 1994.
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[52] S. O. Won, T. K. Yong and J. K. Hee, “Dead time compensation of current controlled inverter using space vector modulation method,” Conference Record of the 1995 IEEE Power Electronics and Drive Systems, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 374-378, 1995.
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[55] J. Llaquet, D. Gonzalez, A. Arias, J. L.Romeral and D. Bedford, “EMI effects of hard-less dead time compensated PWM voltage inverter,” Conference Record of the 1998 IEEE Harmonics and Quality of Power , vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 516-520, 1998.
[56] A. R. Munoz and T. A. Lipo, “On-line dead-time compensation technique for open-loop PWM-VSI drives,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 683-689, 1999.
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[58] A. C. Oliveira, A. M. N. Lima and C. B. Jacobina, “Varying the switching frequency to compensate the dead-time in pulse width modulated voltage source inverters,” Conference Record of the 2001 IEEE Power Electronics, vol.1, no. 2, pp. 244-249, 2001.
[59] C. Attaianese, D. Capraro and G.. Tomasso, “A low cost digital SVM modulator with dead time compensation,” Conference Record of the 2001 IEEE Power Electronics, vol. 1, no. 4, pp.158-163, 2001.
[60] X. Jiang, W. Shen and X. Huang, “High performance space-vector PWM inverters using nonlinear voltage gain correction,” Conference Record of the 2001 IEEE Electrical Machines and Systems, vol. 1, no. 3, pp.534-537, 2001.
[61] H. S. Kim, H. W. Kim and M. J. Youn, “A new on-line dead-time compensation method based on time delay control,” Conference Record of the 2001 IEEE Industrial Electronics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp.1184-1189, 2001.
[62] J. L. Lin, “A new approach of dead-time compensation for PWM voltage inverters,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 476-483, 2002.
[63] A. C. Oliveira, C. B. Jacobina, A. M. N. Lima, E. R. C. D. Silva, “Dead-time compensation in the zero-crossing current region,” Conference Record of the 2003 IEEE Power Electronics Specialist, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1937-1942, 2003.
[64] H. S. Kim, H. T. Moon and M. J. Youn;, “On-line dead-time compensation method using disturbance observer,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1336-1345, 2003.
E. Multi-modular connection and three phase inverter
[65] F. Barzegar and S. Cuk, “A new switched-mode amplifier produces clean three-phase power,” TESLAco, Pasadena, Advances in Switched-Mode Power Conversion, vol. 3, pp. 179-193, 1983.
[66] K. Matsui, Y. Murai, M. Watanabe, M. Kaneko and F. Ueda, “A pulsewidth-modulated inverter with parallel connected transistors using current-sharing reactors,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 186-191, 1993.
[67] F. Ueda, K. Matsui, M. Asao and K. Tsuboi, “Parallel-connections of pulsewidth modulated inverters using current sharing reactors,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 673-679, 1995.
[68] F. V. P. Robinson, “The interleaved operation of power amplifiers,” Seventh International Conference on Power Electronics and Variable Speed Drives, vol. 456, pp. 606-611, 1998.
[69] B. H. Li, S. S. Choi and D. M. Vilathgamuwa, “Transformerless dynamic voltage restorer,” IEE Proceedings- Generation, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 263-273, 2002.
[70] A. Chibani and M. Nakaoka, “A new state-feedback control based 3 phase PWM inverter with improved parallel resonant DC link,” Conference Record of the 1992 IEEE, vol. 1, pp. 801-808, 1992.
[71] G. Yao, S. Phillips and L. Norum, “Three-phase inverters-analysis of ability to maintain symmetrical output voltages,” International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control, and Instrumentation, vol. 2, pp. 1033-1039, 1993.
[72] V. M. Cardenas, S. Horta and R. Echavarria, “Elimination of dead time effects in three phase inverters,” IEEE International Technical Proceedings of Power Electronics Congress, pp. 258-262, 1996.
[73] R. Stoicescu, K. Miu, C. O. Nwankpa, D. Niebur and Xiaoguang Yang, “Three-phase converter models for unbalanced radial power-flow studies,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1016-1021, 2002.
F. Commercialized AC Power Source
[74] “Programmable AC source specification 6590,” CHROMA ATE INC.
[75] “Single and three phase AC power sources models from 500 VA to 12,000 VA,” PACIFIC INC.
[76] “Single and three phase AC power sources models from 1 kVA to 12 kVA manual or programmable control,” PACIFIC INC.
[77] “P series 800 VA to 2000 VA output power,” California Instruments.
[78] “IX Series 3000 VA to 30000 VA of AC output power,” California Instruments.

[79] “Elgar 1001SL 1000VA AC Power Source,” Test Equipment Corporation.
[80] “Elgar 1203SL 3 phase 1200VA AC Power Source,” Test Equipment Corporation.
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1. 包嘉源,〈台灣與大陸加入WTO後兩岸航運關係的可能發展〉,《中華民國海運月刊》第一三六期,1997年4月
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