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研究生:吳國瑞
研究生(外文):Guo-Zua Wu
論文名稱:資訊存取裝置中之浮水印資料防護系統研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on Watermark Content Protection System in Information Storage Devices
指導教授:許文星
指導教授(外文):Wen-Hsing Hsu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:浮水印影像視訊資料防護系統碟片格式壓縮攻擊
外文關鍵詞:WatermarkImageVideocontent protection systemdisc formatcompression attack
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近年來,數位資料儲存裝置與媒體之應用已從電腦平台擴展至消費性電子平台,大量之影音資訊藉由數位媒體的發行而做傳播,數位儲存媒體已成為現今出版業所倚賴之主流傳播載具。然而,數位媒體的易於發行卻也帶來不合法拷貝之風險,由於不合法之數位拷貝風行,現今的出版業者正承受重大損失。發展下一代數位多媒體裝置之資料防護系統是今日好萊塢電影出版業者之重要工作。
目前,一些數位資料儲存媒體(如DVD光碟片與SD小型記億卡)使用多種數位加解密方法配合儲存媒體之物理格式設計以記錄加解密過程所用之“金鑰”,以防止數位拷貝。然而,數位加解密方法並不能提供完全之防護作用。因為解密完之內容仍需藉由傳輸介面作傳輸,如 NTSC、PAL與RGB輸出介面,解密完之內容可在傳輸介面被攔截。此外,碟片上之“金鑰管理系統”有可能被破解,一旦被破解,整個資料防護系統之功能即喪失。
有兩種方法可改進上述之缺失。第一種方法即是在合法播放/錄影裝置上建置浮水印播放/錄影控制系統。合法的播放裝置在將節目內容輸出至顯示裝置前,必須先辨識合法之浮水印資訊再做輸出,並藏入適當的拷貝控制用之浮水印資訊,以便合法拷貝裝置做拷貝控制。而合法拷貝裝置必須辨識浮水印拷貝控制資訊再做拷貝,並藏入適當之播放控制浮水印資訊,以便合法播放裝置做播放控制。第二種方法,即提供一較具彈性之金鑰授權管理機制以降低金鑰管理系統被破解之風險。
為了提供上述方法之解決方案,本研究從事下列三種技術之研究,其內容包括 (1) 發展強勁影像浮水印嵌入/偵測系統以抵抗JPEG壓縮,(2) 針對H.264視訊壓縮方法設計一專用之視訊浮水印嵌入/偵測方法以抵抗H.264之高壓縮比壓縮攻擊,(3) 提出一種新的光碟片格式以支援限制播放次數之功能。其成果簡述如下:
(a) 提出一種使用子頻帶影像在空間領域做相位移以嵌入/偵測浮水印之方法。此種方法可將浮水印資訊藏入低頻之DCT係數當中,且對DCT係數做大量之改變而不產生視覺副效應。所藏入之資訊可存活於JPEG壓縮影像,其壓縮比可大於13:1。而且,浮水印影像可抵抗嚴重之率波攻擊。
(b) 建置一種根據H.264編碼單元所設計之視訊浮水印嵌入/偵測系統,此系統不必使用原有視訊資料即可偵測所藏入之浮水印資訊。此方法包括一畫面畫質控制機構,以控制嵌入之子頻域位置。可使浮水印畫面之畫質之PSNR值在嵌入訊號強度為36之情況下,仍保持大於40dB。浮水印資訊可存活於壓縮比大於40:1之H.264-I畫面與壓縮比大於120:1之視訊串流。同時,也可抵抗各項不同的攻擊,如雜訊攻擊與剪裁攻擊。
(c) 提出一種新的光碟片格式,單一光碟片包含唯讀式與可錄式兩種記錄媒體,唯讀式媒體記錄加密過之影/音資料。可記錄式媒體,記錄“金鑰”資料。記錄於唯讀媒體之影/音資料必須使用記錄於可錄式媒體之“金鑰”做解密後方能播放。而可錄式媒體的壽命會因為曝光於讀取雷射光之次數而受限制,控制讀取雷射之能量,即可控制碟片之壽命。此外,此格式也提供播放裝置使用碟片以外之“金鑰”資料來源以做影/音資料解碼,此種格式之光碟片可提供出版業者創造出新的商業模式。
根據前述所提之研究,本研究已提供建構下世代數位儲存媒體之資料防護系統所需之基本技術。
More recently, the application of digital data storage devices and medias expands from the computer platforms to the CE (consumer electronics) platforms. A lot of audio/video titles were transmitted via the digital storage medias. Digital medias become the main vehicles to transmit multi-media information for studio industry. However, the advantages of digital multimedia come at the prices of increased risk of illegal copying. Because of illegal reproduction, the piracy issues strongly damage the content industry. Developing a secure content protection system for next generation digital multimedia devices is a very important issue of Hollywood studio industries today.
Currently, some digital storage devices, such as DVD and SD memory card, use a variety of encryption/decryption methods compounded with the physical format of storage media to record the key data to prevent illegal digital to digital copy. However, encryption alone could not provide an overall solutions. Once the content is decrypted, it is no longer protected, because the content should be transmitted to users via analog input/output interface, e.g. NTSC, PAL and RGB ports. The pirates can copy the content by capturing the data in the interfaces. Besides, it is possible that the key management system for handling the secure media key may be broken. Once the secure disc key is not secure, the content protection system could not work.
There are two ways to enhance the robustness of the conventional content protection system. The first method is to build a watermark playback/recording control system in the playback/recording devices, the playback devices should recognize the legal watermark of the content before sending out the content via the display interfaces and embed suitable CCI (Copy Control Information) information into the displayed contents. The recording devices should recognize the CCI information before recording the content into the storage media and embed suitable watermarks for the playback control function to be executed in the legal player. The second method is to provide a flexible key management mechanism for the digital content protection system to reduce the danger of being broken.
In order to provide the solution for the aforementioned methods, this study investigates three important issues to fit the requirements. They include developing a robust image watermarking system to resist JPEG compression, designing a video watermarking system to resist the compression attacks of high compression ratio in H.264 video and proposing a new optical disk format to support the function of limited playback times. The achievements are summarized as follows:
a) This study designs a new image watermark embedding/detection system based on sub-band image shift in spatial domain. Since sub-band image shift in space domain can induce large amounts of DCT coefficient changes without artifacts, the proposed method can modulate watermark information into low frequency DCT coefficients with strong embedding strength. The embedded information can survive JPEG compression attacks with more than 13:1 compression ratio. Also, the watermarked images can resist filter attacks with serious quality degradation.
b) A public video watermarking system designed based on the coding unit of H.264 compression standard is implemented. Proposed method comprises a picture quality control mechanism to control the embedding location of frequency components. The PSNR values of watermarked pictures can reserve more than 40 dB by the embedding strength 36. The embedded watermark can survive H.264 compression attack with more than 40:1 compression ratio in I pictures and 120:1 compression ratio in video sequence. Also, they can resist various attacks , such as noise attacks and cropping attacks.
c) A new optical disk format comprising both read-only and recordable medias in single disc was proposed. The read-only media was used to record scrambled audio/video data. The scrambled audio/video data recorded on read-only media can be de-scrambled by using the key data recorded on the recordable media. However, the life of the recordable media is limited by the light exposure to reading laser. Controlling the power of reading laser can limit the life the disks. Furthermore, the new format provides the flexibility to get the key data from the data sources outside the discs, such as card reader or inter-net. This new format provides the possibility to create new business models for the studio industries.
With the aforementioned studies, we already build up the basic technology to constitute a secure content protection system for next generation digital storage devices.
Contents

Abstract in Chinese i
Acknowledgements in Chinese iv
Abstract in English v
Contents viii
List of Figures xi
List of Tables xv
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation and Objectives for this Research 1
1.2 Technical Requirements of Watermark
Embedding/DetectionTechnology 3
1.3 Thesis Organization 4
2. Previous Research 6
2.1 Image Watermark System Based on DCT Transform 6
2.1.1 Private Image Watermarking System 7
2.1.2 Public Image Watermarking System 8
2.2 Vid” Revision 0.93.

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