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研究生:李柏毅
研究生(外文):Lee Po-Yee
論文名稱:漢語語尾助詞「啊」的語用研究
論文名稱(外文):Utterance Final Particle A in Mandarin--- A Pragmatic Perspective
指導教授:曹逢甫曹逢甫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsao Feng-Fu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:預設語尾助詞語用
外文關鍵詞:presuppositionutterance final particlespragmatics
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中 文 摘 要
本文擬從語用的觀點來探討漢語語尾助詞「啊」在言談行為中所扮演的功能。首先,語尾助詞「啊」可區分為兩類:高調「啊」與低調「啊」。此兩者最大的分別在於前者出現的位置大部分在一個話輪的第二句,且一定是用來表示第二個說話者對第一個說話者的知識狀態(knowledge state)的質疑。然而,後者出現在一個話輪的第一句,且是被第一個說話者用來表示某個存在的事實與他/她自己知識狀態之間有所差距。
在研究中亦發現,語尾助詞「啊」僅有標示出談話者間知識狀態的差異之功能,且出現的時機取決於使用者對另一談話者知識狀態的判斷。最後,本文亦討論了高調「啊」與低調「啊」之間的關聯性,並認為它們是源出於同一個功能。
Abstract
Utterance Final Particles have long been a topic for research. In this thesis, UFP a will be investigated by adopting the concept of speakers’ presuppositions in conversation. In addition, UFP a will be divided into two variants, namely, the high pitch (a1) and the low pitch (a2). There are two major differences between these two variants. For one thing, a1 mostly appears in the second part of one turn and is used by the second speaker in response to the first speaker’s knowledge state. For another thing, a2 is often placed in the first part of one turn and used by the first speaker to express the conflict between the existing events and his/her own knowledge state. During the research on the relation between UFP a and speakers’ knowledge state, it is found that speakers use UFP a not only to challenge the knowledge state behind assertions, but also to point out the gap between speakers’ knowledge states expressed implicitly in non-assertion utterances. By indicating such a gap, speakers can accomplish certain speech acts, such as challenge, warning, and so on. To sum up, the use of UFP a can help participants save time from pointing out explicitly the gap between their own knowledge states and the ones of the other side.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chinese Abstract……………………………………………………………………i
English Abstract……………………………………………………………………ii
Acknowledgment………………………………………………………………… iii
Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………iv

CH 1 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………01
1.1 Motivation and the Problems………………………………………………01
1.2 Data Collection and Scope of the Study…………………………………04
1.3 Organization of the Thesis…………………………………………………04

CH 2 PRELIMIARIES………………………………………………………………05
2.1 Implicature……………………………………………………………………05
2.2 Presupposition……………………………………………………………… 08
2.2.1 Semantic Presupposition………………………………………………08
2.2.2 Pragmatic Presupposition…………………………………………… 11
2.2.3 Presupposition Triggers………………………………………………12
2.3 Felicity Condition……………………………………………………………15

CH 3 LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………………… 17
3.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………… 17
3.2 Relevant Studies on UFP a……………………………………………… 17
3.2.1 Chao (1968) & Lu (1980)………………………………………… 17
3.2.2 Li & Thompson (1981)…………………………………………………22
3.2.3 Shie (1991)………………………………………………………………25
3.2.4 Shie’s Analysis on A1…………………………………………………25
3.2.5 Shie’s Analysis on A2…………………………………………………29
3.2.6 Chu (2002) ………………………………………………………………33
3.3 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………35

CH 4 ANALYSIS OF UFP A1……………………………………………………37
4.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………… 37
4.2 The Assertive Mood of UFP A1…………………………………………38
4.3 Lexical Level…………………………………………………………………39
4.3.1 Definite Description……………………………………………………39
4.3.2 Factive Verb………………………………………………………………43
4.3.3 Implicative Adverb………………………………………………………45
4.3.4 Change of State Verbs…………………………………………………47
4.3.5 Iteratives and Continuities………………………………………………49
4.3.6 Verbs of Judging……………………………………………………………51
4.4 Sentential Level………………………………………………………………53
4.4.1 Interrogatives………………………………………………………………53
4.4.2 Yes-No Question…………………………………………………………53
4.4.3 The Asymmetry of Distribution…………………………………………55
4.4.4 Wh-Question………………………………………………………………57
4.4.5 Imperatives…………………………………………………………………58
4.5 Felicity Conditions……………………………………………………………59
4.6 Implicature Inference…………………………………………………………61
4.7 Summary…………………………………………………………………………62

CH 5 ANALYSIS OF UFP A2 ……………………………………………………64
5.1 Interrogatives……………………………………………………………………65
5.2 Exclamation………………………………………………………………………71
5.3 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………73

CH 6 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………74

CHINESE REFERENCE………………………………………………………………77
REFERENCE……………………………………………………………………………78
中文參考書目
呂叔湘1981 《現代漢語八百詞》北京:商務印書館.
胡明揚. 1981.〈北京話的語氣助詞和嘆詞〉《中國語文》5:4-7。
曹逢甫. 2000. 〈華語虛詞的研究與教學-以『呢』字為例〉《第六屆世界華語文研討會論文集》,世界華語文教育學會編 第一冊:語文分析組:1-25 台北:世界華文出版社。
徐晶凝. 1998.〈語氣助詞的語氣義及其教學探討〉《世界漢語教學》44:27-34。
趙元任. 1968.《漢語口語語法》353-368,北京:商務印書館。
屈承熹. 1985.〈語用學與華語教學-語尾虛字”呢”跟”嚜”的研究〉《第一屆世界華文教學研討會論文集》224-240。












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