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研究生:謝佳穎
研究生(外文):Chia-ying, Zephyr. Hsieh
論文名稱:中文小孩在『比』字句的習得研究
論文名稱(外文):The acquisition of ‘bi’-utterances in Chinese-speaking children
指導教授:張顯達張顯達引用關係連金發連金發引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hintat, Cheung.Chinfa, Lien
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:兒童語言習得比字句程度副詞
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本研究目的為探討學齡前的中文小孩在『比』字句上的習得過程。藉由進行兩組實驗來收集『比』字句和檢測受試小孩對形容詞前所修飾的程度副詞『很』和『最』的理解。全數『比』字句裡,百分之三十九的比例呈現出受試小孩在使用『比』字句時會有不同於成人語法的現象,例如:『我的餅乾比你的餅乾很/最/非常/太大』。受試者表現出不同於成人語法中『比』字句的制約,使用程度副詞『很』、『最』、『太』與『非常』成為修飾語,修飾形容詞且出現在含有『比』字的比較句中。
藉由建立規則和以個別項為基準的理論架構,討論與分析此研究中所觀察到之不合成人語法的『比』字句。由於所收集的語料呈現出各年齡裡,中文小孩在表現不同形容詞範疇的『比』字句上,有顯著的個別差異現象,無法完全以建立規則來制約『比』字句的習得過程。然而以個別項為基準的分析方法似乎較為解釋語料的個別差異現象;也就是,個別小孩在學習不同形容詞上會有獨立學習的現象。為求更進一步的解釋,本研究進而觀察帶有程度副詞的副詞片語是否先出現於不合成人語法的『比』字句前,進而造成不合成人語法的『比』字句呈現。分析結果得知,先行的程度副詞片語確實達到高度影響,與不合成人語法的『比』字句的發生率達到正相關。
透過本研究的分析與討論,可以清楚了解到,在兒童語言之習得過程中,不合成人語法的『比』字句表現並非單一因素所造成。語料的個別差異現象不僅透露出小孩是以個別項為基準來學習不同形容詞範疇,也呈現出中文小孩在習得『比』字句上的複雜過程。
At some point during their third year of life, Chinese-speaking children begin to produce utterances such as ‘Wode (bing-gan) bi nide (bing-gan) da’. Sometimes, they also produce some errors such as ‘Wode (bing-gan) bi nide (bing-gan) zui/hen da’. The problem of producing errors is examined by two theoretical models. The first one is on setting up rules during children’s language acquisition process. However, experimental findings cannot suffice to support the rule-based approach. Individual differences between these children show that a general rule fails to describe the process of their acquisition properly. The other account is the item-based approach that dismisses the operation of syntactic category in the early stage of grammatical development. Through observing the prior modifier clauses, there showed a close correlation with the producing of these errors. Therefore, it is suggested that these errors are not caused by an incomplete rule. Rather, they are a kind of performance in formulaic usage that comprises individual items organized around predicative terms.
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