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研究生:游凱凌
研究生(外文):Kai-ling Yu
論文名稱:對在中文口語中的功能及用法
論文名稱(外文):The Functions and Usage of dui in Mandarin Spoken Discourse
指導教授:曹逢甫曹逢甫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Fung-fu Tsao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:言談標記語用標記言談分析
外文關鍵詞:discourse markerduipragmatic markerdiscourse analysis
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本論文旨在以言談-語用的觀點探討在自然而然產生出的漢語口語中,助詞「對」的功能及用法。 我們認為「對」除了是一個同意標記外,也可被用來使用於其他的語用意圖。藉由「對」在話中出現的位置,我們發現「對」可以是一個加強句子命題施為用意的基本標記。而當「對」是一個言談標記時,「對」不僅可以用來表示言談中互動程序的轉換,也反應出在溝通中說話者的心理概念運作情況。藉由布朗和列文森(Brown & Levinson 1987)及利奇(Leech 1983)所提出的理論方法,本文也對「對」在言談中如此普遍出現的情況提出解釋。本研究的結果顯現出,一、由於「對」本身所具有的肯定語意影響,「對」的命題意義和程序意義在話中各個位置互相的交錯影響;二、「對」的使用是心理驅動的,例如規劃標記;三、「對」的功能唯有在會話結構及語境因素都加以考量時,才能夠完整的呈現出。
This study aims to investigate the functions and usage of the discourse particle dui in naturally occurring interactional data in spoken Mandarin from a discourse-pragmatic perspective. We propose that besides functioning as an agreement token, dui can also be used for pragmatic purposes. Seeking from its appearing at different sequential locations, we find that dui can be used as basic markers to reinforce the illocutionary force of the sentence proposition. As a discourse marker, dui not only signals the transition of interactional sequences of discourse but also reflects on speaker’s conceptual processing in communication. We also try to provide further explanation for the prevalent use of dui in discourse along the lines of approaches suggested by Brown & Levinson (1987) and Leech (1983). The result suggests that (a) the propositional meaning of dui and procedural meaning of dui are intertwined with each other in each sequential location, which is influenced by affirmative meaning of dui; (b) the use of dui is psychologically motivated such as the planning marker use; and (c) functions of specific form such as dui can be sound and tangible when the structure as well as contexts are taken into consideration.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION--------------------------------------------------1
1.1 GENERAL REMARKS----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.2 STRUCTURE OF THIS STUDY------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW--------------------------------------------- 6
2.1 DISCOURSE PARTICLES----------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
2.1.1 Reactive Tokens------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7
2.1.2 Discourse Markers---------------------------------------------------------------------------------10
2.1.3 Pragmatic Markers---------------------------------------------------------------------------------15
2.2 PREVIOUS STUDY ON DUI IN MANDARIN CHINESE-----------------------------------------------------19
2.2.1 Kuo (1998): The Discourse functions of dui a in Spoken Mandarin-------------------------19
2.2.2 Wang (1998): The Linguistic Structures of Agreement and Disagreement in Mandarin Conversation------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21
2.2.3 Chui (2002): Ritualization in Evolving Pragmatic Functions: A Case Study of Dui------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21
2.2.4 Tsai (2001): The Discourse Function of the Dui Receipt in Mandarin Conversation ------23

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY AND DATA------------------------------------26
3.1 THE MODEL---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26
3.2 THE DATA-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------28

CHAPTER FOUR DUI IN CONVERSATION-----------------------------------------30
4.1 DISTRIBUTION OF DUI---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------30
4.2 FUNCTIONS AND USAGES OF DUI--------------------------------------------------------------------------31
4.2.1 Turn –initial Dui-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------32
4.2.1.1 Agreement Marker ---------------------------------------------------------------------------32
4.2.1.2 Reactive Tokens-------------------------------------------------------------------------------39
4.2.1.2.1 Back Channels and Reactive Expressions-------------------------------------------------39
4.2.1.2.2 Resumptive Opener and Acknowledgement Token---------------------------------------44
4.2.1.3 Planning Markers------------------------------------------------------------------------------50
4.2.2 Turn -interal Dui--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------58
4.2.2.1 Agreement/ Confirmation Markers---------------------------------------------------------58
4.2.2.2 Framer-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------67
4.2.2.3 Hesitation Markers--------------------------------------------------------------------------74
4.2.3 Turn-final Dui---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------79
4.2.3.1 Agreement/ Confirmation Markers--------------------------------------------------------79
4.2.3.2 Framer-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------83
4.3 BASIC MARKERS AND DISCOURSE MARKERS-----------------------------------------------------------87
4.3.1 Basic Markers---------------------------------------------------------------------------------88
4.3.2 Discourse Markers---------------------------------------------------------------------------91
4.4 SUMMARY----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------93

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION-------------------------------------------------------97
5.1 SUMMARY AND CONTRIBUTION---------------------------------------------------------------------------97
5.2 FURTHER DEVELOPMENT-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------102

APPENDIX--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------105

REFERENCE-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------106
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