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研究生:賴蔚鍾
研究生(外文):Wei-jong Lai
論文名稱:漢語心理動詞的格式與語意
論文名稱(外文):Chinese Psychological Predicates: Interactions between Constructions and Semantics
指導教授:連金發連金發引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chinfa Lien
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:169
中文關鍵詞:格式語意心理動詞認知表現
外文關鍵詞:constructionsemanticspsychological predicatespsych verbscognitive representation
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本研究中的「心理動詞」指描述感受或情感的動詞,如「愛」、「生氣」、「怕」等。先前已有不少研究針對漢語心理動詞的語法現象作過探討。其中不少是透過管束理論來看心理動詞的獨特性。此篇論文的重點則在於探討漢語感受動詞的語意及句法的互動關係。藉由不同感受類動詞所能進入的句式及格式,觀察彼此之間的語意差異,進而找出漢語感受動詞與其他類動詞的不同。

為求語料的真實性,本文中所引用之格式皆從「中研院漢語平衡語料庫」及Google中篩選,再經過筆者個人及同學的判斷而來。此外,為求所研究之動詞皆具有代表性,本文主要陳列的六個感受動詞格式(即「愛」、「喜歡」、「怕」、「害怕」、「氣」、「生氣」),以及後來加入討論的「嚇」,都是屬於語料庫中詞頻偏高的動詞。這七個動詞可分為三大類,第一類的成員包括「嚇」,為「客體-主語」謂語﹔第二類是「感受者-主語」謂語,包括動詞「愛」、「喜歡」及常作形容詞的「害怕」、「生氣」﹔第三類是跨一、二類的謂語,如「氣」和「怕」等。這類動詞的論元結構因可兼有上述二類,因此在語意上常出現模擬兩可的情形。我們在分析各個動詞所能進入的基本格式後,一一羅列,再進一步相互比較,找出彼此相異的格式型態及語意內涵。

在研究的過程中,我們發現了一些有趣的現象。在此舉二個例子。其一,就論元結構來說,在感受動詞所能進入的格式中,感受者(Experiencer)與客體(Theme)為必要論元,但他們不必然在所有句式中都同時體現。另外,程度(Degree)副詞在感受動詞格式中佔有重要地位,有時甚至影響一個句子的合法性。其二,就使動句與結果句的互動來說,我們發現在只有一個論元的格式中,原先帶有使動意義的動詞(如「嚇」)會選擇感受者作為主語。同樣的格式如果多了一個賓語,則原先主語位置的感受者會被客體所取代。同時,結果句的指涉也跟著不同。

本論文在第一章作概略性的介紹。第二章提到一些分析時會用到的概念。第三章作相關的文獻回顧。第四及第五章進行語料上的分析與討論,第六章為總結。
There have been not a few studies on the syntactic behaviors of Chinese psychological predicates (or psych verbs), denoting affection and emotion such as love, anger and fear. Most of them focus on the unique behaviors within the GB (government and binding) framework. Different from them, this thesis aims to explore the interactions between constructions and meanings of psych verbs. We ferret out the semantic varieties among psychological predicates by looking into the constructions in which they can or cannot occur. We then lay out the features belonging to psych verbs at the end of this study.

To ensure the authenticity of the data, all the constructions in this thesis come from the Sinica Corpus and Google. To guarantee that the selected verbs would be representative ones, we focus on the discussion about seven verbs, i.e.ai4 (love), xi3-huan1 (like), qi4 (anger or be angry), sheng1-qi4 (be angry), pa4 (fear), hai4-pa4 (be afraid) and xia4 (frighten), which are selected due to the high frequency of occurrence at the Sinica Corpus. They can be divided into three types. The first type is the Theme-Subject predicates, e.g. xia4 (frighten). The second type is the Experiencer-Subject predicates, including verbs, e.g. ai4 (love), xi3-huan1 (like) and adjectives, e.g. hai4-pa4 (be afraid), sheng1-qi4 (be angry). The third type is the amphibious predicates like qi4 (anger or be angry) and pa4 (fear). Verbs of this type tend to express ambiguous readings because they can be regarded as Theme-Subject and/or Experiencer-Subject predicates at the same time.

We compare their basic patterns and obtain some interesting findings. Two examples are given as follows. One is about the argument structure. Experiencer and Theme are important elements but they may not necessarily appear simultaneously. Experiencer, as well as Theme, can be shaded in certain constructions. In addition, degree adverbs play a crucial role in certain constructions. Sometimes they even determine the grammaticality of a sentence. The other example is about the interaction between causatives and resultatives. If there is only one argument in a construction, the predicate with CAUSE will assign Experiencer to the subject position. However, when there is an object in the same construction, the subject position will be assigned Theme. Experiencer goes to the object position. Meanwhile, the referent of the resultative state alters with the constructions.

In this thesis, a general introduction is given in chapter one. Some theoretic notions are provided in chapter two. Previous studies are reviewed in chapter three. Chapter four and five comprise the data analysis. Conclusion is given in the final chapter.
Table of Contents

Page
Chinese Abstract………………………………………………………i
English Abstract………………………………………………………ii
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………iii
Table of Contents……………………………………………………iv

Chapter 1 Introduction …………………………………………… 1
1.1 GB Approaches.……………………………………………2
1.2 Approaches to Aspectual Semantics.…………………4
1.3 Diathesis Approaches.…………………………………5
1.4 Corpus-based Approaches………………………………6
1.5 Remarks on the Four Approaches………………………7
1.6 Aims of This Thesis.…………………………….………8

Chapter 2 Basic Theoretic Notions .………………….10
2.1 Events……………………………………………………….10
2.2 Argument Structure………………………………………………15
2.3 Conceptual Structure……………………………………………18
2.4 Frame Semantics…………………………………………………21
2.5 Construction Grammar...………………………………………23
2.6 Diathesis Alternations…………………………………………25
2.7 Summary……………………………………………………………26

Chapter 3 Literature Review………………………………………27
3.1 Wu’s (1993) Lexical Decomposition Approach……………27
3.2 Pesetsky’s (1995) Zero Syntax………………………………30
3.3 Yang’s (2000) Null Operator Movement Hypothesis………33
3.4 Chang et al. (2000) and Their Morpho-Lexical Strategies………………………36
3.5 Liu’s (2002) Internal Cause and External Cause………39
3.6 Short Comments………………………………………………….40

Chapter 4 Data Analysis (1): Constructions and Issues……44
4.1 Selection of Verbs………………………………………………44
4.2 The Effect of Syllabic Number on Psychological Predicates……………………48
4.3 Conflation of Psychological Predicates……………………56
4.4 Basic Patterns and Collocations of Lexical Items………60
4.4.1 Ai4 愛 (Love)…………………………………………………63
4.4.2 Xi3-huan1 喜歡 (Like)….……………………………………69
4.4.3 Qi4 氣 (Anger or Get Angry)...……………………………71
4.4.4 Sheng1-qi4 生氣 (Get Angry)…….…………………………76
4.4.5 Pa4 怕 (Fear or Be Afraid)……….………………………79
4.4.6 Hai-pa4 害怕 (Be Afraid).………………………………82
4.5 Concluding Remarks…………………………………………87

Chapter 5 Data Analysis (2): Contrasts and Discussions…88
5.1 Transitivity—An Overview……………………………88
5.2 Complement Variants—A Closer Look…………………90
5.2.1 Ai4 and Xi3-huan1.….……………………………………91
5.2.2 Pa1 and Hai4-pa4………………………………………………93
5.2.3 Qi4 and Sheng1-qi4………………………………………….96
5.3 Agentivity……………………………………………………….101
5.3.1 Agentivity of Qi4………………………………………….102
5.3.2 Agentivity of Ai4-type Verbs……………………………103
5.3.3 Additional Remarks on Gu4-yi4 and Chuan2-xin1Chuan2-yi4…………104
5.4 Transitive Resultative………………………………106
5.4.1 Duplication of Psych Verbs………………………………107
5.4.2 Causative and Resultative Matter………………………108
5.4.3 Uniqueness of the Verb Pa4………………………………116
5.4.4 Event Types: A Rough Cut from the Complements………117
5.5 Degree……………………………………………………118
5.6 Location…………………………………………………122
5.6.1 Constructions Preserved for Psych Predicates………123
5.6.2 The Construction Preserved for Qi4……………………125
5.6.3 Status of Degree……………………………………………126
5.7 Passivization …………………………………………127
5.8 Intransitive Resultative……………………………130
5.8.1 Distinctive Constructions for Psych Verbs …………130
5.8.2 The Manner Matter…………………………………………132
5.8.3 Other Resultative Variants………………………………133
5.9 Causation……………………………………………………..136
5.10 Cognitive Representation…………………………139
5.11 Special Cases…………………………………………143
5.12 Concluding Remarks……………………………………145

Chapter 6 Conclusion……………………………………………147

References..……………………………………………….……...152

Appendix I: Table of Basic Patterns and Collocations……157
Appendix II: Verbs and Arguments on FrameNet………………164
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Online Resources:

Academia Sinica Balanced Corpus of Modern Chinese: http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/mkiwi.sh

FrameNet: http://www.icsi.berkeley.edu/~framenet/
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