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研究生:高健薰
論文名稱:PLZT系列鐵電薄膜應用於光波導元件之製程及其特性之研究
論文名稱(外文):Preparation and properties of PLZT Series Ferroelectric Thin Films Applied in Optical Waveguide Devices
指導教授:蔡春鴻蔡春鴻引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:工程與系統科學系
學門:工程學門
學類:核子工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:207
中文關鍵詞:鋯鈦酸鉛鑭金屬有機裂解製程脈衝雷射剝鍍線性電光效應二次電光效應脊型光波導元件
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鋯鈦酸鉛鑭(PLZT)系列鐵電薄膜包括未摻雜鑭之鋯鈦酸鉛(PZT)與未摻雜鋯之鈦酸鉛鑭(PLT)均具有良好之光穿透性與強電光效應,依其組成成分的差異,分別在光記憶體、光開關、光調制器與光波導等電光元件與積體光學元件應用上極具潛力,在光通訊產業蓬勃發展的今日,已成為廣受矚目的研究課題。然而因為PLZT系列等材料為多元複合固溶體,缺乏一種對各組成成分均有相近蝕刻速率之蝕刻材料,導致在製作光波導型積體光學元件之結構構形時非常困難,必須尋求一種簡單,具量產潛力的構形技術加以取代。
在PLZT系列薄膜製程與特性探討方面,本論文研究中分別提出了數種新的製程方法以改進目前被研究者所採用的技術。對於具有良好組成成分操控性與成本低廉的金屬有機裂解製程(MOD),本研究運用摻雜PZT雙烷基氧化物微粉法改善了傳統MOD法所製備之PZT薄膜之磊晶品質及其光穿透性,也證實這些微粉的添加並不會影響表面粗糙度,反而能有效提升其鐵電性質。然而,屬於高溫製程之添加PZT微粉MOD法,在製作光波導元件時仍必須面對直接蝕刻PZT薄膜之困難。
在本論文中則提出一種先低溫成長、再高溫退火成相的兩段式加熱法,配合KrF準分子脈衝雷射與Nd:YAG脈衝雷射兩種不同類型與特性之脈衝雷射剝鍍(PLD)光源製作PLZT系列薄膜,在研究中發現,兩段式加熱法在製鍍高鑭含量之PLZT(28/0/100)具有最易形成高織構晶態結構之特點,其在短波長區即具有良好之光穿透性、高折射係數、低吸收等優於高溫加熱PLD製程之品質,在光通訊用途之1550 nm長波區,PLZT(28/0/100)平面型薄膜光波導傳輸損耗更可低至2 dB/cm以下。至於線性電光效應經以稜鏡耦合法量測,在波長633 nm時雙折射偏移D(ne-n0)可達-0.0168,線性電光係數則有gc =-127.1 pm/V。對於 二次電光效應則以Z軸掃描法測量,利用二倍頻Nd:YAG脈衝雷射光源(波長532nm)測得二次非線性折射係數nI = -4.86 ×10-8(esu),等效二次電光係數Reff = 0.37 ×10-16(m2/V2)。
此一兩段式加熱PLD製程成功地在低於光阻可忍受溫度(150℃)以下製作出厚度達0.6 mm之品質優良的高織構晶態PLZT(28/0/100)薄膜,使得黃光剝離法用於製作脊型光波導元件構造成為可行。在研究中發現,高氧壓製程條件使運用正光罩曝光直接製作略帶外張側璧之光阻溝槽,在剝離過程中會損壞光波導線條結構,而運用負光罩極性反轉曝光製作出正梯形側璧脊型光波導結構是較理想的製程方案。在Mach-Zehnder干涉儀式光開關之元件結構之製作方面,係將兩段式加熱PLD製程所製作PLZT(28/0/100)薄膜所測各項光學與電光效應參數代入BeamPROP軟體中模擬設計,得出最可行之幾何結構,然後使用反轉曝光黃光剝離法製作波導結構圖紋,再以正光罩黃光剝離法製作電極結構,成功地製作出Mach-Zehnder干涉儀元件。
目 錄

章節 主題 頁次
摘要………………………………………………..………….Ⅰ
誌謝…………………………………………………..……….Ⅲ
目錄…………………………………………………..……….Ⅳ
表目錄……………………………………………….….…….Ⅸ
圖目錄………………………………………………...………Ⅹ
第一章 前言……………………………… ………………..………....1
1-1 研究背景……………………………………………………...….1
1-2 研究動機與目的………………………………………...……….3
第二章 文獻回顧
2-1鐵電陶瓷之晶體結構………………….…………………..….….5
2-1-1晶體結構與其特性……………………………….……...….5
2-1-2相變化與其特性…………………………………..……..….5
2-2 鋯鈦酸鉛(PZT)材料….………………………………….………7
2-2-1鉛系鈣鈦礦之結晶結構…………………………..….…..…7
2-2-2 PZT之相圖與特性…………………………….…….……...7
2-3 鋯鈦酸鉛鑭(PLZT)材料………………………………………...9
2-3-1 鑭摻雜對光穿透性之影響…………………………...……9
2-3-2 PLZT之成份組成與相圖…..………………………………9
2-3-4 PLZT之結晶結構……………………………………...….10
2-4 PZT、PLZT薄膜之製備方法…………………………….……12
2-4-1 單晶陶瓷與靶材之製備……………………………….…12
2-4-2 液相溶液成膜法……...………………………………..…12
2-4-3化學氣相沈積法……………………………………..…….14
2-4-4磁控濺鍍法(magnetron sputtering)……...………..……….14
2-4-5脈衝雷射剝鍍法(PLD)…..………………………………..15
2-5 PZT、PLZT薄膜之特性與應用…………………………….….17
2-5-1光學性質……………………………………………….…..17
2-5-2 電光特性………………………………………………….19
2-6積體光學元件之應用…………………………………………..23
2-6-1 光波導(Optical waveguide)元件…………………………23
2-6-2 光閘(Optical switch)元件………………………………...24
2-6-3記憶體元件之應用………………………………………..24
2-6-4致動元件之應用…………………………………………..25
2-6-5感測元件之應用………………………………………..…26
2-6-6紅外線感測元件…………………………………………..26
2-6-7壓電感測元件……………………………………………..26
第二章 參考文獻………………………………………………………27
第三章、理論基礎
3-1光波導理論……………………………………………………...57
3-1-1二維波導理論……………………………………………..57
3-1-2 三維波導理論…………………………………………….64
3-2稜鏡耦合技術…………….……………………………………..70
3-2-1稜鏡耦合原理…………………………………………..…70
3-2-2端面耦合原理……………………………………………...71
3-2-3薄膜折射率係數之量測………………………………...…71
3-3電光效應………..……………………………………………….74
3-3-1 折射係數橢圓球……………………………………….…74
3-3-2 電光效應與折射係數變化……………………………….75
3-3-3電光效應量測方法……………………………………..…79
3-4光波導之傳輸損耗…………...…………………………………83
3-4-1 光損耗之來源………………………………………….....83
3-4-2 光損耗之量測………………………………………….…84
第三章參考文獻……………..…………………………………………87
第四章 實驗方法
4-1 金屬有機裂解鍍膜(MOD)製程………………………………103
4-1-1 起始材料之調製………………………………………...103
4-1-2 奈米微粉之調製………………………………………...104
4-1-3 PZT薄膜之製鍍程序……………………………………105
4-1-4 極化電性量測樣本製作………………………………...106
4-2 準分子脈衝雷射剝鍍(PLD)製程…………………………….107
4-2-1 靶材製作與基板整備…………………………………...107
4-2-2 脈衝雷射剝鍍………………………………………...…108
4-3 Nd:YAG脈衝雷射剝鍍(PLD)製程……………………….…110
4-3-1 製程腔體的設計與組配………………………………...110
4-3-2 靶材製作與基板整備…………………………...………111
4-3-3 Nd:YAG脈衝雷射剝鍍程序……………………………112
4-4 光波導元件結構設計與黃光剝離製程………………………113
4-4-1 脊型光波導結構之理論計算與模擬………………...…113
4-4-2 黃光剝離製程…………………………………………...114
4-5 薄膜特性之量測………………………………………………117
4-5-1薄膜厚度之量測………………………………………….117
4-5-2 薄膜結晶結構之量測………………………………...…118
4-5-3 表面形貌之量測………………………………………...119
4-5-4 薄膜光學特性之量測…………………………………...119
4-5-4 薄膜電光特性之量測…………………………………...120
4-5-5 光傳輸特性之量測……………………………………...121
第四章 參考文獻……………………………………………………..122
第五章 結果與討論
5-1 以摻雜奈米微粉之金屬有機裂解製程製鍍PZT薄膜之探討……………………………………………………………...134
5-1-1 晶態特性探討…………………………………………...134
5-1-2 摻雜微粉製程對薄膜厚度之影響…………………...…136
5-1-3 鐵電特性之探討………………………………………...137
5-1-4 薄膜表面特性之探討…………………………………...137
5-1-5 光學特性之探討………………………………………...138
5-2 以準分子脈衝雷射剝鍍製程製備PLZT系列薄膜之探討….140
5-2-1 兩段式加溫成相PLD製程晶態特性探討……………..140
5-2-2 退火溫度與壓力對PLZT薄膜晶態之影響……………142
5-2-3 磊晶PLZT薄膜之製備與其光學特性之探討…………144
5-3 以Nd:YAG脈衝雷射剝鍍製程製備PLZT系列薄膜之探討150
5-3-1 薄膜表面微粒之抑制…………………………………...150
5-3-2 薄膜晶態之控制………………………………………...150
5-3-3 光穿透特性……………………………………………...151
5-3-4 光傳輸損耗……………………………………………...151
5-3-5 線性電光效應………………………………………..….152
5-3-6 二次電光效應…………………………………………...153
5-4 光波導元件結構設計與模擬…………………………………155
5-4-1 單波導元件之設計與模擬…………………………..….155
5-4-2 Y型光波導分光器元件之設計與模擬………………….156
5-4-3 Mach-Zehnder 干涉儀式光開關之設計與模擬………..156
5-5 光波導元件黃光剝離製程探討………………………………158
5-5-1 正光罩黃光製程之探討………………………………...158
5-5-2 正光罩黃光剝離製程之探討……………………….…..160
5-5-3 負光罩黃光剝離製程之探討…………………………...161
第五章 參考文獻……………………………………………………..162
第六章 結論…………………….…………………………..205
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