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研究生:李祖文
研究生(外文):Zu-wen Lee
論文名稱:台灣產石竹亞科植物之分類研究
論文名稱(外文):A Taxonomic Study of Caryophyllaceae subfam. Silenoideae of Taiwan.
指導教授:王震哲
指導教授(外文):Jenn-che Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:生命科學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:119
中文關鍵詞:石竹科石竹屬蠅子草屬石竹亞科
外文關鍵詞:CaryophyllaceaeDianthusSileneSilenoideae
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本研究利用外部形態、花粉形態、細胞學及生態與地理分布等資料,針對台灣產石竹科(Caryophyllaceae)石竹亞科植物(subfam. Silenoideae),包含兩個屬─石竹屬(Dianthus)與蠅子草屬(Silene)進行分類研究。研究結果顯示在外部形態上,石竹屬與蠅子草屬之間可由花柱數目、花瓣、副萼片、萼片、種子及蒴果形態加以區分;花瓣、萼筒、種子及植株形態是種間區別的重要特徵;生長型式、蒴果形態、被毛類型及地理分布亦可作為分類鑑定之參考。花粉形態方面,花粉表面紋飾及萌發孔數存有種間差異,可作為部份類群分類之佐證。
細胞學研究方面,石竹屬的染色體基數為X=15,蠅子草屬則以2n=24最普遍;本研究共檢視14個分類群之染色體數目,其中五個分類群有多倍體現象。首次報導的種類包括巴陵石竹(D. palinensis)n=15、清水山石竹(D. seisuimontanus)n=15、二裂蠅子草(S. fortunei var. bilobata)n=15,蓬萊蠅子草(S. formosamontana)2n=72、玉山蠅子草(S. morrisonmontana var. morrisonmontana)2n=72與禿玉山蠅子草(S. morrisonmontana var. glabella)n=36。
根據研究結果將台灣產石竹亞科植物處理為二屬10種4變種,共14個分類群,包含8個特有類群,並發現一新種蓬萊蠅子草及一新紀錄種堅硬女婁菜(S. firma)。將白花玉山石竹(D. pygmaeus f. albiflorus)併入玉山石竹(D. pygmaeus),將台灣瞿麥(D. superbus var. taiwanensis)併入瞿麥(D. superbus var. superbus);確立被遺漏的瞿麥、清水山石竹與二裂蠅子草之存在;將高山蠅子草(S. transalpina)併入玉山蠅子草,禿玉山蠅子草改為玉山蠅子草之變種。
The subfamily Silenoideae (Caryophyllaceae) in Taiwan was taxonomically revised based on morphological, palynological, cytotaxonomic, phytogeographical, and ecological studies. Style numbers and morphology of petals, sepals, epicalyx, seeds and capsules were the most important characters in distinguishing the two genera in Taiwan. Morphology of petals, sepals, stem and seeds are the most valuable characters for taxonomy within the two genera. Distribution, life form, sepals, capsules morphology and types of hairs also provide useful application. For palynological study, the number of apertures and exine sculpturing show interspecific difference.
Cytologically, Dianthus have chromosome base number x=15, and 2n=24 is quite common in silene. The chromosome numbers of fourteen taxa were exeamind in this study. Five taxa were polyploid. Dianthus palinensis (n=15), D. seisuimontanus (n=15), S. fortunei var. bilobata (n=15), S. formosamontana (2n=72), S. morrisonmontana var. morrisonmontana (2n=72) and S. morrisonmontana var. glabella (n=36) were determined for the first time.
Ten species and four varieties of two genera were treated, including eight endemic taxa. A new species (S. formosamontana) and a new record (S. firma) were treated. Dianthus pygmaeus form. albiflorus was treated as synonymy of D. pygmaeus. Dianthus superbus var. taiwanensis was treated as synonymy of D. superbus var. superbus. Silene transalpina was treated as synonymy of S. morrisonmontana. Dianthus superbus var. superbus, D. seisuimontanus and S. fortunei var. bilobata were recognized. S. glabella was transfered as a variety of S. morrisonmontana.
目次
附表目次…………………………………………………………………………..Ⅱ
附圖目次…………………………………………………..………………………Ⅲ
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………………..Ⅴ
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………………..Ⅵ
一、 前言………………………………………………………………………………1
二、 材料與方法………………………………………………………………………8
三、 形態特徵………………………………………………………………………..11
四、 花粉形態………………………………………………………………………..35
五、 細胞分類………………………………………………………………………..42
六、 生態與地理分布………………………………………………………………..47
七、 分類處理………………………………………………………………………..57
八、 參考文獻……………………………………………………………………....114
附表目次
表1. 台灣產石竹亞科植物學名沿革表….…………………………………………6
表2. 台灣產石竹亞科植物學名與中文對照表……………………………..……..12
表3. 台灣產石竹亞科植物種子形態研究材料、結果及證據標本資料………....30
表4. 台灣產石竹亞科植物花粉形態研究材料、結果及證據標本資料…………37
表5. 台灣產石竹亞科植物染色體研究結果及證據標本資料…………………....44
表6. 玉山蠅子草(S. morrisonmontana var. morrisonmontana)、禿玉山蠅子草(S. morrisonmontana var. glabella)及蓬萊蠅子草(S. formosamontana)之特徵比較……………………………………………………………………….……….92
表7. M. morrisonmontanum、M. transalpinum與M. vesiculifome之特徵比較(根據原始發表文獻)……………...…………………………………………….……….107
附圖目次
圖1. 台灣產石竹亞科植物之生長型式…………………………………………....14
圖2. 台灣產石竹亞科植物之葉形…………………….…………………………...16
圖3. 台灣產石竹亞科植物花朵解剖圖(一)…………………………………....18
圖4. 台灣產石竹亞科植物花朵解剖圖(二)…………………………………....19
圖3. 台灣產石竹亞科植物之花序類型…………………………………………....21
圖4. 台灣產石竹亞科植物之萼筒形態……………………………………………24
圖5. 台灣產石竹亞科植物之花瓣形態……………………………………………25
圖6. 台灣產石竹亞科植物之蒴果形態………………………………………..…..29
圖7. 台灣產石竹亞科植物之種子形態……………………………………..……..31
圖8. 台灣產石竹亞科植物之花粉形態………………………………………..…..38
圖9. 台灣產石竹亞科植物之染色體………………………………………..……..45
圖10. 台灣產石竹亞科植物之地理分布………………………………………..…50
圖11. 巴陵石竹(Dianthus palinensis S. S. Ying)…………………………….59
圖12. 玉山石竹(D. pygmaeus Hayata)……………………….………………63
圖13. 清水山石竹(D. seisuimontanus Masamune).…………………………67
圖14. 瞿麥(D. superbus L. var. superbus)……………………………………..70
圖15. 長萼瞿麥(D. superbus L. var. longicalycinus (Maxim.) Will.)……….74
圖16. 女婁菜(S. aprica Turcz.)……….………………………………………..78
圖17. 狗筋蔓(S.baccifera (L.) Roth)………………………..…………………82
圖18. 堅硬女婁菜(S. firma Sieb. & Zucc.)……………………………………87
圖19. 蓬萊蠅子草(S. formosamontana Z. W. Lee)…………………………..90
圖20. 蠅子草(S. fortunei Vis. var. fortunei)……………..…………………….94
圖21. 二裂蠅子草(S. fortunei Vis. var. bilobata Hosokawa)………………...97
圖22. 基隆蠅子草(S. fortunei Vis. var. kiiruninsularis (Masamune) Ying)..101
圖23. 玉山蠅子草(S. morrisonmontana (Hayata) Ohwi & Ohashi var. morrisonmontana)…….......………………………………………………104
圖24. 禿玉山蠅子草(S. morrisonmontana (Hayata) Ohwi & Ohashi var. glabella (Ohwi) Ohwi & Ohashi)………………………………………109
照片1. 台灣產石竹亞科植物(一)………………………......................…………112
照片1. 台灣產石竹亞科植物(二)………………………......................…………113
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