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研究生:常雅珍
論文名稱:激發心靈潛能―以正向心理學內涵建構情意教育課程之研究
指導教授:毛國楠毛國楠引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:教育心理與輔導研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:正向心理學情意教育
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激發心靈潛能―以正向心理學內涵建構情意教育課程之研究
中文摘要
本研究之主要目的有三(1)以正向心理學內涵建構適合國小學童學習之情意教育課程。(2)以量化研究方式探討此一課程對國小五年級學生正向情緒、正向意義、樂觀及內在動機之影響。(3)以質化研究方式說明師生互動的歷程,再透過自我調節論的觀點分析學生在學習歷程中的轉變,並以訪談方式分析學生在情意教育中的學習歷程,最後從問卷中了解學生對情意教育的接受度、應用及成效。
本研究之研究對象為平安國小五年級學生,實驗組學生接受為期十一週每週兩次融入情意教育之綜合活動課程,對照組則接受一般之綜合活動課程,研究工具包括樂觀信念量表及研究者自編的正向情緒量表、正向意義量表及學習動機量表,量化研究採用單因子共變數分析進行統計檢定,研究結果如下:(1)在立即效果部份,實驗組在正向情緒、正向意義、內在動機及樂觀四方面均顯著優於對照組;(2)在追蹤效果部份,實驗組在正向情緒、正向意義、內在動機及樂觀四方面均顯著優於對照組。
質化研究的部分採用觀察、問卷、訪談、文件蒐集、錄音錄影等多元方式蒐集資料,記錄師生互動的歷程,並將學生學習之歷程,分為「自我涉入」、「自我覺察:」「認知評估」「自我應用」「自我增強」五個階段,再以自我調節論的觀點輔以百分比次數統計以了解學生教學前後的轉變,茲說明如下:
(1) 在「自信」方面,分為「自我肯定」和「欣賞別人」兩部分。在自我肯定的部份,學生從被動或不知如何使用策略找出自己的優點,逐漸進步到採取主動策略以找出自己的優點;欣賞別人的部分,學生在教學後學生欣賞同學的角度,逐漸從教學前的外在因素(86%)轉為內在因素(91%),亦即教學後逐漸能了解應該從內在特質來欣賞別人,欣賞別人的部份從外在美的角度提升到重視同學的內在特質。
(2) 在「同理心」方面,教學前學生助人、分享、給予行為的動機大多是外在動機因素(30%),經過同理心教學之後,基於行動者內在動機因素的提昇到60%,外在動機的學生從30%下降至19%。
(3)在「知足」方面,發現教學前學生對自己所擁有的一切,感到滿意的學生僅占37%,在教學後有89%的學生都覺得自己擁有的已經太多,要心存感恩。從「買賣遊戲」活動中,了解學生價值觀的轉變,原本所有學生都偏重物質需求,在「知足」教學後,有85%的學生外在的慾望逐漸減少,取而代之的是精神上的滿足。
(4) 在「正向意義」方面,可以分為以下三種價值觀的建立:經驗性價值部分,教學前透過「我的最愛」活動了解學生對愛的解讀,結果發現68%的學生是基於外在價值,只有12%的學生最愛某一物品的原因是因為它的內在價值勝於一切,教學之後有94%的學生重視所愛物品的內在價值,可見學生逐漸了解愛的真諦;創造性價值部分,孩子在教學之後,平常表現良好的動機主要來自內在動機,約佔全數之92%,較原先的23%相較,明顯提昇許多,特別是出現23%的利他動機,是教學前學生沒有的想法;態度性價值部分,教學之後,對負面事件產生正向想法的學生從42%提升到68%,其中能找到正向意義,亦即感到自己能從負面事件中學習或得到收穫的學生從6%提升到33%,負向想法從41%下降到32%。
(5)在「樂觀」方面,教學前採取負向策略方式約占59%,採取正向策略方式約占31%,在教學後面對困擾事件採取負向策略方式從59%下降至8%,採取正向策略方式從31%上升至92%,特別是「解決問題」的因應方式從9%上升至35%,成為學生最主要的因應方式。
最後,研究者歸納研究結論,並提出研究結果之應用及未來相關研究之建議,作為教學應用及未來研究之參考。
The construction of Affective Education Curriculum with the content of the Positive Psychology
Ya-jane Chaung
Abstract
The purposes of this study were :(1)to design the affective education curriculum of positive psychology blended with synthetic activity curriculum for fifth-grade students;(2)to use quantitative method to investigate the immediate and following effects of the affective education curriculum of positive psychology for fifth-grade students;(3)to use qualitative method to analyse the interaction between teachers and students,the shifts of self-regulation process,the learning process,and the understanding of the students’ acception .
For these purposes,the subjects of this study were two groups of fifth-grade students from one public primary school in Taipei County.There were 35 students of experimental group and 35 students of control group.Each group was examined with optimism scale, positive emotion scale,positive meaning scale,and learning motivation scale.The experimental group had the blending courses,while the control group had only synthetic activity curriculum.The collected data were analyzed by one-way ANCOVA.The results were as follows:(1)for immediate effects ,there were significant difference between two groups on optimism scale, positive emotion scale,positive meaning scale,and learning motivation scale;(2) for follow effects , there were significant difference between two groups on optimism scale, positive emotion scale,positive meaning scale,and learning motivation scale.
Qualitative method was used for the second part of this study,including observation,inventory, interview,documents analysis,recording and video.With qualitative method , the interaction between the teacher and students could be recorded in detail.The learning processes were divided into five stages,which were self-involvement, self-awareness ,cognition-appraisal ,self-application and self-reinforcement.The reasercher also used self-regulation theory to analyze the shifts of the students. The results were as follows:
In“self-confidence”, incluing“self-affirmation”and“appreciation”.The students did not know how to use strategies for self-advantages before affective education curriculum ,they gradually realized to use strategies for self-advantages after this curriculum. Appreciation focuses on the students’ inner characteristics,which means the students know how to appreciate other people from out side factor to inner factor after this curriculum.
In“sympathy”, most of the students used to have altruistic behavior for other people’s prise,rewards,and feedback before this affective education curriculum.After this designed curriculum, they gradually realize “help the others is the foundation of the happiness”,and perform altruistic behavior for instrinic motivation.
In“contement”, 63% of the students felt ordinary or did not content with what they had owned,but 89% felt satistied with what they owned after this affective education curriculum.
In“positive meaning”,it inclusive of“experience value”,“creative value”,and“attitude value”.94% of the students knew the meaning of love from “experience value”.92% of the students knew the instrinic motivation of daily routines from “creative value”. 68% of the students with positive emotion and could find benefit from “attitude value”.
In“optimism”, 31% of the students used positive strategies before this affective education curriculum ,92% of the students used positive strategies after this affective education curriculum, “problem solving”became primary style after this affective education curriculum.
To sum up,the results of both quantitative and qualitative studies support the affective education curriculum of positive psychology.This study also offers a discussion on instructional assistance and future studies.
目 錄
中文摘要
英文摘要
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機…………………………………………………………1
第二節 研究問題與研究假設……………………………………………4
第三節 名詞釋義…………………………………………………………6
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 情意的內涵………………………………………………………9
第二節 情意教育的目標……………………………………………… 15
第三節 正向心理學之主要內涵……………………………………… 19
第四節 內外在動機統整新趨勢……………………………………… 51
第五節 教學方法……………………………………………………… 73
第六節 自我調節論…………………………………………………… 92
第三章 前導性的研究:行動研究
第一節 行動研究………………………………………………………111
第二節 研究設計………………………………………………………113
第三節 研究情境和參與研究人員……………………………………118
第四節 資料蒐集和分析………………………………………………119
第五節 行動研究的緣起—探索性的研究………………………… 121
第六節 行動研究結果……………………………………………… 131
第七節 行動研究後的省思…………………………………… 157
第四章 研究方法與設計
量化研究
第一節 研究設計………………………………………………………161
第二節 研究對象………………………………………………………163
第三節 研究工具………………………………………………………163
第四節 實驗課程………………………………………………………173
第五節 實施程序………………………………………………………176
第六節 資料處理與分析………………………………………………179
質化研究
第一節 研究情境及研究成員……………………………………………180
第二節 資料蒐集與分析……………… …………………………………183
第三節 研究的信效度……………………………………………………186
第五章 研究結果
量化研究
第一節 情意教育實驗課程的立即效果………………………………189
第二節 情意教育實驗課程的追蹤效果………………………………199
質化部分
第一節 師生互動歷程……………………………………………… 209
第二節 學生自我調節的情形……………………………………… 251
第三節 學生在情意教育中所調適的迷思概念…………………… 283
第四節 學生在情意教育中學習的歷程…………………………… 287
第五節 學生對情意教育的反應…………………………………… 294
第六章 討論和教學後的省思……………………………………… 300
第七章 結論與建議
第一節 結論……………………………………………………………307
第二節 建議……………………………………………………………311
參考文獻
中文部份………………………………………………………………… 314
英文部分………………………………………………………………… 326
附錄目次表
附錄一 「行動研究」及「正式研究」之家長通知函…………………365
附錄二 學習動機與動機理論向度之對應明細表………………………367
附錄三 動機量表正式預試之項目分析…………………………………369
附錄四 正向情緒量表正式預試之項目分析……………………………370
附錄五 正向意義量表正式預試之項目分析……………………………371
附錄六 訪談同意書………………………………………………………372
附錄七 訪談及開放性問卷大綱…………………………………………373
附錄八 預試之內外在動機量表涵蓋內涵及題目分配表………………374
附錄九 預試之學習動機量表……………………………………………377
附錄十 正式之學習動機量表……………………………………………380
附錄十一 樂觀信念量表……………………………………………………382
附錄十二 正向意義預試量表………………………………………………383
附錄十三 正向意義正式量表………………………………………………386
附錄十四 正向情緒預試量表………………………………………………388
附錄十五 正向情緒正式量表………………………………………………390
附錄十六 活動設計…………………………………………………………392
附錄十七 主題式的隱喻故事………………………………………………401
附錄十八 學生對情意教育課程接受度之問卷……………………………426
附錄十九 學習單……………………………………………………………427
附錄二十 實驗組和控制組的教學方案設計………………………………462
附表目次
表2-1-1 國內學者對情意的定義…………………………………………10
表2-1-2 國外學者對情意的定義…………………………………………10
表2-1-3 國內學者對生命教育的觀點……………………………………12
表2-2-1 情意教育目標的分類……………………………………………16
表2-3-1 永久性及暫時性的解釋形態……………………………………24
表2-3-2 普遍性及特定性的解釋形態……………………………………25
表2-3-3 個別性的解釋形態………………………………………………25
表2-3-4 國外對樂觀信念的實證研究……………………………………26
表2-3-5 國內對樂觀信念的實證研究……………………………………27
表2-3-6 生命意義的界定…………………………………………………28
表2-3-7 生命意義之國外相關研究………………………………………32
表2-3-8 生命意義之國內相關研究 …………………………………… 33
表2-3-9 國內學者對情緒的解釋及定義…………………………………34
表2-3-10 國外學者對情緒的解釋及定義…………………………………34
表2-3-11 國內情意教育與情緒教育課程…………………………………41
表2-3-12 正向情緒的內涵…………………………………………………50
表2-4-1 讚賞和鼓勵的區別………………………………………………53
表2-4-2 兩種目向…………………………………………………………62
表2-4-3 各個歷程的行為動機……………………………………………64
表2-4-4 邏輯後果和懲罰的比較…………………………………………67
表2-4-5 Keller的ARCS模式 ………………………………………… 70
表2-5-1 直接教學法和間接教學法………………………………………73表2-5-2 兒童故事的分類依據……………………………………………76
表2-5-3 國外關於故事的相關研究………………………………………79
表2-5-4 國內關於故事的相關研究表……………………………………80
表2-5-5 國外關於內在對話的相關研究…………………………………86
表2-5-6 國內關於內在對話的相關研究…………………………………87
表2-6-1 行動控制策略分類表……………………………………………99
表2-6-2 七種學派對自我調節學習的觀點…………………………… 108
表2-6-3 各學派自我調節的學習歷程………………………………… 109
表2-6-4 本研究中學生自我調節的歷程的分析方…………………… 110
表3-6-1 「買賣遊戲」的結果………………………………………… 150
表3-6-2 四年愛班學生優點一覽表……………………………………153
表4-1-1 本研究之實驗設計…………………………………………… 161
表4-2-1 研究樣本人數分配表………………………………………… 163
表4-3-1 動機量表正式預試之因素分析結果………………………… 166
表4-3-2 正式量表涵蓋向度與題目分配表…………………………… 167
表4-3-3 國小學童正向情緒量表正式預試之因素分析結…………… 169
表4-3-4 正式量表涵蓋向度與題目分配表…………………………… 170
表4-3-5 正向意義量表之因素分析結果……………………………… 172
表4-3-6 正式量表涵蓋向度與題目分配表…………………………… 173
表4-4-1 情意教育課程之內容………………………………………… 173
表4-1-1 研究者之批判諍友…………………………………………… 183
表5-1-1 兩組學生在「正向情緒量表」前後測得分的原始分數、標準差及調整後平均數…………………………………………………………… 190
表5-1-2 「各組迴歸線平行」假設考驗結果…………………………… 190
表5-1-3 多變量共變數分析摘要表………………………………………191
表5-1-4 以同時信賴區間法進行兩組平均數差異之事後比較結果表 192
表5-1-5 兩組學生在「正向意義量表」前後測得分的原始分數、標準差及調整後平均數…………………………………………………………… 193
表5-1-6 「各組迴歸線平行」假設考驗結果…………………………… 193
表5-1-7 多變量共變數分析摘要表………………………………………194
表5-1-8 以同時信賴區間法進行兩組平均數差異之事後比較結果表…194
表5-1-9 兩組學生在「樂觀量表」前後測得分的原始分數、標準差及調整後平均數…………………………………………………………………195
表5-1-10 組內迴歸係數同質性檢定摘要表…………………………… 195
表5-1-11 共變數分析摘要表…………………………………………… 196
表5-1-12 兩組學生在「外在動機量表」前後測得分的原始分數、標準差及調整後平均數……………………………………………………………196
表5-1-13 組內迴歸係數同質性檢定摘要表…………………………… 197
表5-1-14 共變數分析摘要表…………………………………………… 197
表5-1-15 兩組學生在「內在動機量表」前後測得分的原始分數、標準差及調整後平均數……………………………………………………………197
表5-1-16 組內迴歸係數同質性檢定摘要表…………………………… 198
表5-2-1 兩組學生在「正向情緒量表」前測及追蹤測的原始分數、標準差及調整後平均數…………………………………………………………200
表5-2-2 「各組迴歸線平行」假設考驗結果………………………… 200
表5-2-3 多變量共變數分析摘要表…………………………………… 201
表5-2-4 以同時信賴區間法進行兩組平均數差異之事後比較結果… 202
表5-2-5 兩組學生「正向意義量表」前測及追蹤測的原始分數、標準差及調整後平均數……………………………………………………………203
表5-2-6 「各組迴歸線平行」假設考驗結果……………………………203
表5-2-7 多變量共變數分析摘要表…………………………………… 204
表5-2-8 以同時信賴區間法進行兩組平均數差異之事後比較結果… 204
表5-2-9 兩組學生在「樂觀量表」前測及追蹤測得分的原始分數、標準差及調整後平均數…………………………………………………………205
表5-2-10 組內迴歸係數同質性檢定摘要表…………………………… 205
表5-2-11 共變數分析摘要表…………………………………………… 206
表5-2-12 兩組學生「外在動機量表」前測及追蹤測的原始分數、標準差及調整後平均數……………………………………………………………206
表5-2-13 組內迴歸係數同質性檢定摘要表…………………………… 207
表5-2-14 兩組學生「內在動機量表」前測及追蹤測的原始分數、標準差及調整後平均數……………………………………………………………208
表5-2-15 組內迴歸係數同質性檢定摘要表…………………………… 208
表5-2-16 共變數分析摘要表…………………………………………… 209
表5-1-1 「浪費」之分類…………………………………………………223
表5-2-1 學生找到自己優點的方法…………………………………… 251
表5-2-2 學生欣賞他人之類型………………………………………… 252
表5-2-3 學生自我肯定的策略及百分比……………………………… 255
表5-2-4 學生欣賞他人之類型………………………………………… 256
表5-2-5 利他行為行為表現類型……………………………………… 258
表5-2-6 利他行為的動機類型及百分比……………………………… 263
表5-2-7 教學後利他行為的動機類型及百分比……………………… 266
表5-2-8 學生在教學前進行「買賣遊戲」活動的結果……………… 268
表5-2-9 學生在教學前後對於「我所擁有」的改變………………… 269
表5-2-10 學生在教學後進行「買賣遊戲」活動的結果……………… 269
表5-2-11 學生對正面事件所建構的創造性價值及其百分比………… 272
表5-2-12 學生對負面事件所建構的意義及其百分比………………… 274
表5-2-13 學生在教學前後對最愛物品動機的轉變…………………… 274
表5-2-14 學生對正面事件所建構的創造性價值及其百分比………… 275
表5-2-15 教學後學生對負面事件所建構的意義及其百分比………… 277
表5-2-16 學生在教學前面對困擾事件所採取的策略………………… 280
表5-2-17 學生在教學前面對困擾事件所採取的策略………………… 282
表5-4-1 「自我涉入」的逐字稿驗證………………………………… 287
表5-4-2 「自我覺察」的逐字稿驗證………………………………… 288
表5-4-3 「認知同化」的逐字稿驗證………………………………… 289
表5-4-4 「認知調適」的逐字稿驗證………………………………… 290
表5-4-5 「自我應用」的逐字稿驗證………………………………… 291
表5-4-6 「他人回饋之自我增強」的逐字稿驗證…………………… 292
表5-4-7 「自我回饋之自我增強」的逐字稿驗證…………………… 293
表5-5-1 學生對情意教育課程內容的滿意程度……………………… 295
表5-5-2 學生喜歡情意教育的原因…………………………………… 295
表5-5-3 學生對各單元教學的接受度………………………………… 296
表5-5-4 各單元受喜歡及不喜歡的原因……………………………… 296
表5-5-5 以後是否希望再參加類似的課程…………………………… 297
表5-5-6 學生想對研究者說的話……………………………………… 298
附圖目次
圖2-3-1 本研究情意教育的內容……………………………………… 19
圖2-5-1 隱喻故事架構圖……………………………………………… 83
圖2-6-1 TOTE回饋系統……………………………………………… 100
圖2-6-2 自我調節系統的結構…………………………………………105
圖2-6-3 自我系統在自我調節學習中的角色模式……………………106
圖3-2-1 行動研究之研究架構…………………………………………114
圖3-2-2 研發教材流程…………………………………………………117
圖4-4-1 教學步驟………………………………………………………176
圖4-5-1 量化研究流程圖………………………………………………178
圖5-1-1 兩組的組內迴歸交點及顯著差異點…………………………198
圖5-2-1 兩組的組內迴歸交點及顯著差異點…………………………207
圖5-1-1 自信的教學架構圖……………………………………………210
圖5-1-2 學生教學前後自我肯定策略的改變 ……………………… 212
圖5-1-3 學生教學前後欣賞他人方式的轉變…………………………214
圖5-1-4 同理心的教學架構圖…………………………………………215
圖5-1-5 學生教學前後利他行為動機的轉變…………………………221
圖5-1-6 知足的教學概念架構圖………………………………………222
圖5-1-7 學生在教學前後「知足」想法的轉變………………………230
圖5-1-8 「正向意義」的教學概念架構圖…………………………… 231
圖5-1-9 學生在「經驗性價值」教學前後價值觀的轉變……………235
圖5-1-10「創造性價值」教學前後對學生價值觀的轉變…………… 239
圖5-1-11 態度性價值教學前後對學生價值觀的轉變…………………243
圖5-1-12 樂觀的教學架構圖……………………………………………244
圖5-1-13 樂觀教學前後對學生價值觀的轉變…………………………249
圖5-3-1 本研究澄清之迷思概念………………………………………283
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