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研究生:王元芳
研究生(外文):Yuan-Fang Wang
論文名稱:黑鯛Somatolactin及Proopiomelanocortin基因表現與環境適應之關係研究
論文名稱(外文):Gene Expression of Somatolactin and Proopiomelanocortin in relation to Environmental Stress in Black Porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli
指導教授:張清風張清風引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Fong Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:低溫緊迫環境適應皮質醇緊迫反應性類固醇激素黑鯛
外文關鍵詞:cold stressenvironmental adaptationcortisolstress responsesex steroidsblack porgy
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本研究之目的了解腦下垂體somatolactin (SL)的功能以及proopiomelanocortin (POMC)這兩個基因經過緊迫刺激後的基因表現。本實驗以海水魚黑鯛作為研究魚種,成功的選殖到這兩個基因之胺基酸序列,並設計特異性引子以作為基因之探針,以real-time PCR之分析方式來了解SL於環境緊迫適應中表現以及緊迫因子造成在下視丘-腦下垂體-腎上腺皮質(hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal, HPI) 反應中,主宰ACTH分泌的前驅物POMC的表現。
在低溫緊迫(19.5 ℃→14 ℃)之環境下黑鯛SL會於緊迫源解除後24小時顯著的增加,於另一種注射低劑量(0.5 μg/g BW) cortisol緊迫源,SL表現顯著地上升。在注射性類固醇實驗中發現estradiol-17β (E2)及testosterone (T) 對腦下垂體SL表現是有顯著地影響,顯示SL表現和性類固醇分泌或生殖方面具有相關性。另外水生動物最敏感鹽度所造成緊迫,在原本於淡水生活的黑鯛急速改變至海水中4天後,SL表現有顯著地下降。
POMC於低溫緊迫時會有顯著增加表現,但直接注射cortisol腦下垂體POMC表現與控制組間無顯著差異。性類固醇E2及T注射實驗中以及長期適應或急速改變鹽度的實驗中未發現POMC有顯著表現。
這些研究得結果顯示出在不同環境的環境所造成的緊迫所感受到緊迫程度不同,SL及POMC表現牽涉其中,對於SL這個基因在環境適應中是乎扮演一個極重要的角色,而對於構成緊迫反應中,POMC基因表現多寡亦為一個重要元素。
The objective of the present study was to examine the stimulatory effect of stressors on the somatolactin and proopiomelanocortin gene expression in the pituitary of black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli. The nucleotide sequences of SL and POMC mRNA were determined in pituitary, and specific primers were designed for real-time PCR to measure SL and POMC gene expression in response to stress.
Slight cold stress (19.5 ℃→14 ℃) resulted in an increase in SL gene expression after 24 hrs treatment. Response to low dose cortisol injection (0.5 μg/g BW) was measured immediately after administration of the hormone and the result showed that SL gene expression was increased significantly. Similarly, SL gene expression also showed a significant increase in response to sex steroid injection. These results suggest that SL may be associated with reproduction. Under different salinities, the SL gene expression decreased when BP was transferred from FW to SW on the 4th day, indicating that SL gene expression may also be related to FW adaptation.
POMC gene expression increased significantly during cold stress, but gene expression of POMC was not significantly different between low and high dose of cortisol treatment. Different salinities or injection with different sex steroids did not cause any significant change in POMC expression.
In the present study, the major physiological functions of SL remain unclear. But SL may be associated with environmental adaptation. In HPI axis, stressor can influence hypothalamus to secrete CRH which in turn acts upon pituitary to secrete ACTH. Thus, POMC may play an important role in stress response and also in homeostatic balance.
中文摘要……………………………………………………… ................ i
英文摘要………………………………………………………………….ii
謝辭……………………………………………………………………….iν
圖表目錄……………………………………………………………….…iΧ

壹、前言
一、魚類腦垂體所分泌的素 1
二、環境的緊迫對魚類的適應 1
三、Somatolactin合成與分泌 2
四、Somatolactin基因歸屬於生長激素與泌乳激素的家族 2
五、Somatolactin的功能 4
六、POMC衍生物構成緊迫反應之重要元素 6
七、POMC之合成與相關研究 6
八、研究目的 7
貳、實驗材料與方法
一、實驗魚種及採樣組織 9
二、實驗設計 9
(一)、選殖黑鯛SL與POMC基因 9
(二)、比較不同劑量cortisol對腦下垂體SL與POMC之表現 10
(三)、短時間注射不同劑量之性類固醇對腦下垂體SL與POMC
表現量之影響 10
(四)、急速低溫處理(19.5 ℃"14 ℃)所造成的緊迫其腦下垂體
SL與POMC基因表現 11
(五)、長期適應於不同鹽度下(34 ppt與0 ppt)腦下垂體分泌SL與
POMC表現量之差異 11
(六)、黑鯛飼養於不同鹽度環境(34 ppt與0 ppt)急速改變鹽度對
腦下垂體SL與POMC表現量之影響 12
三、分析方法 12
(一)、全量核醣核酸 (Total RNA) 之純化 12
(二)、反轉錄-聚合酶連鎖反應 (RT-PCR) 14
(三)、黑鯛SL基因選殖策略……………………………………………………………………… 15
(四)、黑鯛腦下垂體POMC real-time PCR引子………………………………… 17
(五)、萃取質體DNA 17
(六)、Absolute real-time quantitation PCR 19
四、實驗藥品及分析試劑 23
(一)、菌種、質體 22
(二)、一般化學藥品 23
(三)、酵素及生化分析試劑 24
(四)、實驗藥品及溶液配方 24
五、統計分析 26
參、結果
一、黑鯛SL與POMC基因選殖 27
(一)、黑鯛SL基因選殖及序列分析 27
(二)、黑鯛POMC 基因選殖及序列分析 27
二、絕對定量real-time PCR系統之建立 28
(一)、黑鯛腦下垂體SL及POMC之real-time PCR引子設計……… 28
(二)、Real-time PCR反應CT值之決定 28
(三)、絕對定量標準曲線之建立…………………………………………………………… 28
三、測試黑鯛SL與其同家族growth hormone、 prolactin之
cross reactivity 29
四、比較不同劑量cortisol對腦下垂體SL與POMC之表現 29
(一)、比較不同劑量cortisol對腦下垂體SL之表現 29
(二)、比較不同劑量cortisol對腦下垂體POMC之表現 29
五、短時間注射不同劑量之性類固醇對腦下垂體SL與POMC表現
量之影響 30
(一)、短時間注射不同劑量之E2對腦下垂體SL表現量之影響 30
(二)、短時間注射不同劑量之T對腦下垂體SL表現量之影響 30
(三)、短時間注射不同劑量之E2對腦下垂體POMC表現之影響 30
(四)、短時間注射不同劑量之T對腦下垂體POMC表現之影響 30
六、急速低溫處理(19.5℃"14℃)所造成的緊迫其腦下垂體SL與
POMC基因表現量之影響 31
(一)、急速低溫處理(19.5℃"14℃)所造成的緊迫其腦下垂體SL
基因表現 31
(二)、急速低溫處理(19.5℃"14℃)所造成的緊迫其腦下垂體POMC
基因表現 31
七、在長期適應不同鹽度下(34ppt、0 ppt)腦下垂體分泌SL與POMC
表現之差異 31
(一)、在淡水海水環境中黑鯛腦下垂體分泌SL表現量之差異 31
(二)、在淡水海水環境中黑鯛腦下垂體分泌POMC表現量之差異 31
八、黑鯛飼養於不同鹽度環境(34ppt、0 ppt)急速改變鹽度對腦下垂
體SL與POMC表現量之影響 32
(一)、急速改變鹽度對腦下垂體SL表現量之影響 32
(二)、急速改變鹽度對腦下垂體POMC表現量之影響 32
肆、討論
一、黑鯛SL基因選殖 33
二、黑鯛POMC基因選殖 34
三、黑鯛SL與POMC基因緊迫下之表現 34
四、注射性類固醇黑鯛SL與POMC基因表現 37
五、在不同鹽度下腦下垂體分泌SL表現之差異 38
伍、結論 40
陸、參考文獻 41

圖表目錄

表1、黑鯛somatolactin胺基酸序列與其他魚類相似百分比.................50
表2、黑鯛POMC與其他魚種胺基酸相似度的百分比………………. .51
圖1、Somatolactin 4個高保留度區域………...………………………..52
圖2、黑鯛somatolactin(SL) cDNA的選殖略………..…..……………..53
圖3、黑鯛Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cDNA的選殖策略…………. 54
圖4、黑鯛somatolactin核苷酸及其演譯胺基酸序列.............................55
圖5、黑鯛POMC核苷酸及其演譯胺基酸序列..................................... 57
圖6、測試real-time PCR所使用SL特異性引子之特異性 58
圖7、測試real-time PCR所使用POMC特異性引子之特異性…...… ..59
圖8、Real-time PCR測定SL以及POMC之反應thoushold cycle
(CT) 定義…........................................................................................60
圖9、黑鯛SL以及POMC標準曲線關係圖.………………..……..….. 61
圖10、測試黑鯛somatolactin (SL) 與家族growth hormone (GH)
     及prolactin (PRL) 之間的交互作用……………………………62
圖11、比較不同劑量cortisol對腦下垂體SL之表現…………………63
圖12、比較不同劑量cortisol對腦下垂體POMC mRNA之………….64
圖13、短時間注射不同劑量之E2對腦下垂體SL表現量之影響…….65
圖14、短時間注射不同劑量之T對腦下垂體SL表現量之影響......... 66
圖15、短時間注射不同劑量之E2對腦下垂體POMC表現量之影響. 67
圖16、短時間注射不同劑量之T對腦下垂體SL表現量之影響......... 68
圖17、急速低溫處理(19.5 ℃"14 ℃)後第1天至第6天所造成的緊
迫其腦下垂體SL 基因表現........................................................69
圖18、急速低溫處理(19.5 ℃"14 ℃)後第1天至第6天所造成的緊
迫其腦下垂體POMC 基因表現................................................. 70
圖19、長期適應不同鹽度下(34 ppt、0 ppt)經30天後腦下垂體SL
基因表現量之差異………………………………………………71
圖20、長期適應不同鹽度下(34 ppt、0 ppt)經30天後腦下垂體POMC
基因表現量之差異………………………………………………72
圖21、黑鯛飼養於不同鹽度環境(34 ppt與0 ppt)急速改變鹽度
後第1天與第4天對腦下垂體SL表現量之影響5月間
(非繁殖季)所進行實驗……………………………...................73
圖22、黑鯛飼養於不同鹽度環境(34 ppt與0 ppt)急速改變鹽度
後第1天與第4天對腦下垂體SL表現量之影響12月間
(繁殖季)所進行實驗….............................................................. 74
圖23、黑鯛飼養於不同鹽度環境(34 ppt與0 ppt)急速改變鹽度
後第1天與第4天對腦下垂體POMC表現量之影響5月間
(非繁殖季)所進行實驗……………………………...................75
圖24、黑鯛飼養於不同鹽度環境(34 ppt與0 ppt)急速改變鹽度
後第1天與第4天對腦下垂體SL表現量之影響12月間
(繁殖季)所進行實驗…………………………………………….76
圖25、以HPI為主軸之緊迫反應…………………………………… ... 77
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