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研究生:鄭秋霞
研究生(外文):Chiu-Hsia Cheng
論文名稱:南太平洋長鰭鮪分佈與洄游變動之研究
論文名稱(外文):A study on the fluctuation of distribution and migration of South Pacific albacore
指導教授:呂學榮
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:環境生物與漁業科學學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:長鰭鮪南太平洋亞熱帶收斂區
外文關鍵詞:AlbacoreSouth Pacific OceanSubtropical Convergence Zone
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摘 要

本研究以SPC彙整1970~2000年之鮪延繩釣漁獲資料分析南太平洋長鰭鮪之分佈與洄游。除利用CPUE空間分佈與漁場重心移動兩種傳統方法外,並發展以網格CPUE變動量計算網格向量之演算方法,藉以推測南太平洋長鰭鮪之分佈與洄游情形。另蒐集NOAA之表水溫與分層水溫資料,以相同之演算法分析各層之溫度向量,以了解水溫變化之影響。本研究之主要結果如下:
1. 漁場重心之東西向移動主要為季節性移動,低緯度之重心移動範圍有限,高緯度(亞熱帶收斂線水域)之東西向季節性移動範圍較廣。
2. 漁場重心之南北向則顯示有逐漸往南移動的趨勢,自1992年以後此趨勢尤其明顯,此時間高緯度之表水溫也有顯著的增加,特別是160°W以西之海域。
3. 3x3網格CPUE變動量推算之向量分佈顯示,長鰭鮪之洄游順著南太平洋環流呈逆時針方向洄游。180°E以西之群島水域、塔斯曼海、澳洲東部及STCZ附近水域之向量大小與方向隨季節變化頗大,但仍循著大環流之主洄游路徑洄游。
4. 1980-2000年間各網格之CPUE向量移動以偏南居多,若與以3x3網格水溫變動量推算之向量比較,則各網格之走向與200~300m之水溫向量趨勢雷同。
本研究發展之網格CPUE向量演算法證實可用以推估長鰭鮪的洄游,但5x5度網格與1個月的空間與時間解析度,尚不足以獲得漁撈作業上詳細的洄游訊息。另外,鮪延繩釣的漁獲體長(年齡)主要為長鰭鮪成魚,未來應將表層漁業也納入此方法分析,才能獲得包括低齡魚之較完整的洄游資訊。

關鍵字:長鰭鮪, 南太平洋, 亞熱帶收斂區
Abstract

In this study, we use the 5x5 degree longlinning catch and effort data compiled by SPC to observe the distribution and migration characteristics of South Pacific albacore. Both gravity of fishing ground and vector of each grid and calculated by using 5 by 5 CPUEs of albacore, with which the displacement of distribution and migration routes are estimated. Meanwhile, the temperature of SST and subsurface layers collected from NOAA were also conducted vector computation accordingly to determine flow trend and its relationship with the result from gravity and vector analysis. The following are the conclusions of the study:
1. The zonal displacements of the gravity of albacore fishing grounds are mainly seasonal without inter-annual change. The higher latitude shows higher extent of seasonal displacement in zonal direction.
2. Meridianal displacements of the gravity show a southward trend during recent decades. The CPUE at higher latitude increase significantly since 1992 and at the mean time the temperature of the latitude turned high gradually, especially in waters west of 160°W.
3. The vectors computed by 3x3 CPUE cells show that the flowing trend of each grid. Vectors of the whole region show the migration direction are basically along with the South Pacific Gyre. The vectors in archipelagic waters (western Pacific), Tasman Sea, Eastern Australian and STCZ waters show relatively stronger seasonal variations, however they still follow the anticlockwise migration loop in the open ocean.
4. The 20-year albacore flow determined by average of the vectors (1980-2000), mainly point to the south, are consistence with the vector of warm water flow calculated by 3x3 temperature cells at layers of 200~300m.
The algorithm developed in this study for calculating vectors of each grids are proved useful in estimation of the flow trend of albacore CPUE. However, the 5 degree cell size and temporal interval of 1 month are not fine enough to get detail migration information required in fishing operation level. The migration picture obtained in this study only represents albacore at size (age) of longliner’s target, mainly mature or pre-mature. More data from surface fisheries need to be insert before we learn equivalent understanding for those albacore at younger life stage.

Key words: Albacore, South Pacific Ocean, Subtropical Convergence Zone
論 文 章 節 目 次

壹、前言…………………………………………………1              
一、資源與漁業…………………………………………1
二、分佈與洄游…………………………………………3
三、研究動機及目的……………………………………5
貳、材料方法……………………………………………7
一、資料來源……………………………………………7
二、CPUE時空分佈變動分析…………………………8
三、水溫資料分析………………………………………11
四、海域分區與分析結果比較…………………………12
參、結果……………………………………………………14
一、月別空間分佈之平均狀態…………………………14
二、漁場重心與CPUE時空等值線之關係 ……………14
三、CPUE向量之推移……………………………………16
四、CPUE向量與分層水溫變動之關係…………………20
肆、討論與結論…………………………………………22
一、討論…………………………………………………22
(一)造成漁場重心移動之因素…………………22
(二)向量推移與洄游路徑之關係………………23
(三)水溫變動之影響……………………………25
二、結論…………………………………………………27
參考文獻…………………………………………………28
表……………………………………………………………32
圖……………………………………………………………39
附錄…………………………………………………………62
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