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研究生:王怡傑
研究生(外文):WANG YI-CHIEH
論文名稱:無線區域網路功率放大器及功率偵測器之設計與實作
論文名稱(外文):Design and Implementation of Power Amplifier and Power Detector for Wireless LAN
指導教授:陳少傑陳少傑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Sao-Jie
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電子工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:功率放大器功率偵測器主動式電感限制放大器
外文關鍵詞:power amplifierpower detectoractive inductorlimitng amplifer
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近年來,行動通訊快速的發展,使得無線網路越來越普遍。例如:IEEE 802.11a、802.11b、802.11g、Bluetooth 等等。本實驗室將利利用高整合性的互補式金氧電晶體(CMOS)製作無線區網802.11b之前端的傳送接收器,其射頻前端包括低雜訊放大器、混波器、可變增益放大器、低通濾波器、功率放大器及功率偵測器。
本論文著重於無線網路802.11b 的傳送器之設計與實作,包含功率放大器 (power amplifier)及功率偵側器 (power detector)。並利用台灣積體電路公司(TSMC)的0.25μm 的CMOS 製程,這樣的目的就是為了整合積體電路晶片而鋪路,也期望將能夠跟數位訊號處理的部分作整合。
在此所使用的功率放大器是將從混波器送出來的2.4GHz訊號放大,增強信號之輸出功率,使之輸出功率達到21dBm。再用功率偵測器精確的偵側出輸出功率,並將此輸出功率轉換為一電壓,回授至增益控制系統(本論文未提及)。如此一來,增益控制系統 可使傳送器之輸出功率更為準確。
Wireless application is more and more popular in recent years. For example: we have products on IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g and Bluetooth. Our Laboratory chooses the Wireless LAN 802.11b transceiver as the research target, which radio frequency circuits include low noise amplifier, mixer, VGA, low-pass filter, power amplifier, and power detector.
The power amplifier and power detector are the research topics in this Thesis. We implement and simulate these circuits by using TSMC CMOS 0.25μm process. Hoping that we can carry out a system-on-chip for 802.11b in the future.
The purpose of a power amplifier is to amplify the signal from a mixer to 21dBm, and we use a power detector to exactly detect the output power of the power amplifier. Our power detector transfers the output power in dB to a voltage in V, and feedback this voltage to the gain control system. In this way, the output power of a transmitter can be controlled more exactly.
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………… i
TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………… iii
LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………… v
LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………… ix
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………… 1
1.1 802.11b Review ……………………………………… 1
1.2 Thesis Organization ……………………………………… 3
CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF TRANSMITTER ARCHITECTURES ………… 5
2.1 Direct-Conversion Transmitter …………………………… 5
2.1.1 Improvements ………………………………………… 7
2.2 Two-Step Transmitter …………………………………… 8
2.3 Proposed Transmitter Architecture ………………………… 9
2.4 Some Indexes of RF IC Design …………………………… 11
2.4.1 Harmonics …………………………………………………… 11 2.4.2 1-dB Compression Point …………………………… 11
2.4.3 Intermodulation ………………………………………… 12
2.4.4 Port Return Loss and Isolation ……………… 15 2.4.5 Stability …………………………………………………… 16
CHAPTER 3. DESIGN OF POWER AMPLIFIER ………………………… 19
3.1 Concepts of Power Amplifier …………………………… 19
3.1.1 Conjugate Match and Load Line Match ……………… 19
3.1.2 Linear Power Amplifier …………………………… 20
3.1.3 CMOS Power Amplifier …………………………… 24
3.2 Design of Power Amplifier for Wireless LAN 802.11b … 25
3.2.1 Finding Ropt ………………………………………… 26
3.2.2 Output Matching Network …………………………… 27
3.2.3 Power Amplifier Circuit …………………………… 29
3.3 Summary of Power amplifier …………………………… 33
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF POWER DETECTOR ………………………… 35
4.1 Introduction to Power Detector …………………………… 35
4.2 Power Detector Design ………………………………………… 36
4.2.1 Single to Differential Circuit ……………… 36 4.2.2 Limiting Amplifier …………………………………… 38
4.2.3 Rectifier ……………………………………………… 46
4.2.4 Whole Power Detector Simulation ………………… 52
4.3 Summary of Power Detector …………………………… 54
CHAPTER 5. WHOLE SIMULATION, IMPLEMENTION, AND
MEASUREMENT …………………………………………………………… 55
5.1 Simulation Results of Whole Circuit ……………………… 55
5.2 Implementation ………………………………………………… 58
5.3 Measurement …………………………………………………… 60
CHAPTER 4. CONCLUSION AND FUTRUE WORK ………………… 63
6.1 Conclusion ……………………………………… 63
6.2 Future work …………………………………………………… 64
[1] IEEE Std. 802.11b-1999, “Wireless LAN MAC and PHY Specifications,” ISO/IEC 8802-11:1999 (E), New York: IEEE, 1999.
[2] IEEE Std. 802.11a-1999, “Wireless LAN MAC and PHY Specifications ─ High-Speed Physical Layer in the 5GHz Band,” ISO/IEC 8802-11: 1999 (E)/Amd 1:2000 (E), New York: IEEE, 2000. IEEE Std 802.11b-1999.
[3] B. Razavi, RF Microelectronics, Mc Graw Hill, 1998.
[4] B. Razavi, Design Analog CMOS Intefrated Circuits, Mc Graw Hill, 2001.
[5] D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons,
1997.
[6] S. C. Cripps, RF Power Amplifiers for Wireless Communications, Artech House, 1999.
[7] M. M. Hella and M. Ismail, Rf CMOS Power Amplifiers: Theory, Design and Implementation, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 01 December, 2001.
[8] B. Razavi, Design of Integrated Circuits for Optical Communications, Mc Graw Hill, 2003.
[9] C. Fallesen and P. Asbeck, “A 1W CMOS Power Amplifier for GSM-1800 with 55% PAE”, IEEE MTT-S International, pages 911-914 May 2001.
[10] John M. Steininger, “Understanding Wide-band MOS Transistors,” Circuits and Devices, pages 26-31 May 1990.
[11] M.K. Raja, T.T.C. Boon, K.N. Kumar, and S. J. Wong, “A fully integrated variable gain 5.75-GHz LNA with on chip active balun for WLAN,” IEEE RFIC Symposium, pages 439-442 June 2003.
[12] C. H. Lu and W. Z. Chen, “Bandwidth Enhancement Techniques for Transimpedance Amplifier in CMOS Technologies,” IEEE European Solid-State Circuits Conference, Session 2-2, September 2001.
[13] D. Engeler, S. Steinegger, HF Power Detector, student Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, 2003.
[14] S. Ho, “A 450MHz CMOS RF Power Detector,” IEEE RFIC Symposium, pages 209-212 May 2001.
[15] K. Kimura, “A CMOS Logarithmic IF Amplifier with Unbalanced Source-Coupled Pairs,” IEEE Solid-State Journal, pages 1917-1926, Jan. 1993.
[16] “RF Power Detector for CDMA ad WCDMA in micro SMD general Description,” 2003 Nationnal Semiconductor Corporation DS200760.
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