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研究生:陳怡先
研究生(外文):Yi-Hsien Chen
論文名稱:機場鋪面平坦度評估指標研擬之研究
論文名稱(外文):Development of Pavement Roughness Index for Airports
指導教授:周家蓓周家蓓引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chia-Pei Chou
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:土木工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:177
中文關鍵詞:鋪面檢測機場鋪面平坦度
外文關鍵詞:smoothnessairport pavementpavement inspection
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鋪面平坦度(smoothness)為路面頂層縱向及橫向之表面特徵,由於機場航機迥異於公路車輛,發展專屬之鋪面平坦度評估指標有其必要性存在。本研究主要目的即為對影響航機乘客舒適性最大之機場鋪面共振波長範圍進行分析、探討目前各種平坦度評估指標於機場鋪面平坦度評估之適用程度,最後進而發展機場鋪面專用之平坦度評估指標。
本研究首先採用電腦模擬方法分析航機垂直向反應,分析成果顯示不論為航機之垂直向加速度值或相對鋪面荷重,各機型於各滑行速度下均會於某特定波數時出現共振峰值。經進一步探討分析可知,目前常用之公路鋪面平坦度指標,並不適用於機場鋪面。
本研究接續以航機反應模擬成果為基礎,以小波理論為方法論,研擬機場鋪面專用之平坦度評估指標:機場鋪面糙度指標(PRIA)。經本研究之驗證成果顯示,機場鋪面糙度指標對於航機垂直向反應影響較鉅之鋪面剖面波長範圍的確亦具有較高之輸出值,顯示本研究所發展之指標確實可用於機場鋪面平坦度狀況之評估,並以PRIA-R = 8 m/km作為獎勵區之評估標準,而PRIA-R = 14 m/km則為一適宜之接受區評估標準,若新工完成機場跑道鋪面其PRIA值大於此值者,則承商應無償改善之。
本研究最後並發展一自動化指標分析程式,定名為機場鋪面糙度評估軟體(PRESA)。本軟體除可計算機場鋪面糙度指標,並依照使用者設定區間長度計算區間平均值外;並具有計算區間以及總和國際糙度指標(IRI)以及行駛指數(RN)之弁遄C
第一章 緒論
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 研究範圍與對象 5
1.4 研究方法與內容 5
1.5 研究流程 8
第二章 鋪面平坦度文獻與機場專用評估方法回顧
2.1 機場鋪面平坦度相關研究 11
2.2 機場鋪面平坦度評估方法 12
2.2.1 美國波音公司機場鋪面平坦度評估方法 13
2.2.2 加拿大機場鋪面平坦度檢測規範草案 16
2.3 公路鋪面慣用平坦度指標 19
2.3.1 國際糙度指標(IRI) 19
2.3.2 行駛指數(RN) 26
2.3.3 剖面指標(PI) 29
2.3.4 均方垂直加速指標(RMSVA) 31
2.3.5 梅式指標(MO) 33
2.3.6 行駛品質指數(RQI) 34
2.3.7 ISO鋪面平坦度評估方法 35
2.3.8 ISO人體全身振動量測方法 38
2.4 小結 42
第三章 研究方法論構建
3.1 航機運行特性模擬軟體APRas簡介 45
3.2 航機運行特性動態反應分析法 58
3.3 波形訊號處理方法 68
3.3.1 傅立葉分析 68
3.3.2 小波理論 70
3.4 執行流程 76
第四章 模擬結果分析
4.1 航機垂直向加速度與荷重反應分析 79
4.1.1 垂直向加速度反應分析 79
4.1.2 相對鋪面荷重分析 82
4.1.3 小結 84
4.2 共振波長分析與模式建立 88
第五章 現有平坦度評估指標與方法適用性探討
5.1 波數反應分析法 94
5.2 現有平坦度評估指標與方法波數反應分析 95
5.2.1 國際糙度指標(IRI) 95
5.2.2 行駛指數(RN) 103
5.2.3 剖面指標(PI) 109
5.2.4 均方垂直加速指標(RMSVA) 110
5.2.5 梅式指標(MO) 111
5.2.6 行駛品質指標(RQI) 111
5.2.7 行駛舒適指標(RCI) 112
5.2.8 ICAO與FAA評估法 113
5.3 小結 114
第六章 平坦度指標之研擬
6.1 小波演算邏輯之研發 117
6.2 小波函數之選擇 120
6.3 權重係數矩陣之擬定 125
6.4 指標驗證 136
6.5 自動化指標分析電腦程式之建立 138
6.5.1 機場鋪面糙度指標(PRIA)分析弁?139
6.5.2 四分車模型指標分析弁?144
6.5.3 四分車模型指標波數反應特性分析弁?145

第七章 跑道平坦度分析與門檻值研擬
7.1 國內外機場跑道平坦度分析 147
7.1.1 國內機場跑道(一) 148
7.1.2 國內機場跑道(二) 149
7.1.3 國內機場跑道(三) 150
7.1.4 美國紐華克自由機場4L-22R跑道 152
7.1.5 美國拉瓜迪亞國際機場13-31跑道 154
7.1.6 美國甘乃迪國際機場13L-31R跑道 155
7.1.7 小結 157
7.2 PRIA指標評估標準分析 157
7.2.1 評估標準研擬方法論說明 157
7.2.2 評估標準分析成果之探討 159
第八章 研究結論與建議
8.1 研究結論 163
8.2 後續研究進行建議 167
參考文獻
附錄一 航機垂直向反應模擬成果彙整
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