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研究生:蔡逸文
研究生(外文):I-Wen Tsai
論文名稱:鹼處理對聚乙烯醇薄膜滲透蒸發效能之影響
論文名稱(外文):Influence of NaOH post-treatment on the pervaporation performance of PVA membranes
指導教授:王大銘
指導教授(外文):Da-Ming Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:化學工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:聚乙烯醇滲透蒸發
外文關鍵詞:poly(vinyl alcohol)pervaporation
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本研究以兩種不同水解度(86~89%, 98.5~99%)的聚乙烯醇來製備薄膜,發現在聚乙烯醇乾燥成膜後,將其浸入2N NaOH溶液中,除了可以提高其水解度外,還可以使其分子鏈重排列成較疏水性的結構,改變薄膜之親疏水性。
將鹼處理後之薄膜分別對乙醇、異丙醇及四氟丙醇水溶液進行滲透蒸發測試。以70 wt%異丙醇作為進料,透過端水濃度為97 wt%,通量達1500 g/m2-hr;以70 wt%乙醇作為進料之透過端水濃度為94 wt%,通量達2000 g/m2-hr;以90 wt%四氟丙醇之分離效果最佳可達透過端水濃度94 wt%,通量320 g/m2-hr。亦發現所製備之聚乙烯醇薄膜在純水中膨潤100天後,仍可維持相同的滲透蒸發效能。
本研究亦嘗試利用FTIR microscope對聚乙烯醇薄膜的鹼處理過程進行分析,即時量測鹼處理過程中,聚乙烯醇薄膜內不同位置處IR圖譜隨時間之變化,可估計NaOH在薄膜內不同深度處之水解反應完成時間以及NaOH在膜內之擴散係數。
In this study, two kinds of poly(vinyl alcohol) in different degrees of hydrolysis (86~89% and 98.5~99%)were used. The results of experiments demonstrate that if the dried poly(vinyl alcohol) membrane was immersed into a 2N NaOH solution bath, the hydrolysis would become more completely and the structure of the polymer chains would be rearranged which could make the membrane more hydrophobic.
The performances of the NaOH-treated membrane on perpavoration in ethanol aqueous solution, isopropanol aqueous solution, and tetrafluropropanol aqueous solution were tested. For a feed containing 70 wt% of isopropanol, the NaOH-treated membrane possessed a flux of 1500 g/m2-hr with a permeation containing 97 wt% of water. With a feed containing 70 wt% of ethanol, the flux was 2000 g/m2-hr and the permeation was 94 wt% of water. With a feed containing 90 wt% of tetrafluro- propanol, the flux was 320 g/m2-hr and the permeation was 94 wt% of water. The long-term test indicated that the prepared membrane could be stored in pure water for about 100 days which continuous swelling and still could keep a good separation performance in perpavoration.
In this study the in-situ IR spectrums of poly(vinyl alcohol) reacted with NaOH in various time were measured and recorded by FTIR microscope. From the spectrum results, the total reaction time in different depth of poly(vinyl alcohol) membrane could be estimated and the diffusivity of NaOH in poly(vinyl alcohol) membrane could be obtained.
誌謝…………………………………………………………… Ⅰ
中文摘要……………………………………………………… Ⅲ
英文摘要……………………………………………………… Ⅴ
目錄…………………………………………………………… Ⅶ
圖索引………………………………………………………… Ⅸ
表索引………………………………………………………… XI

第一章、緒論………………………………………………… 1

第二章、文獻回顧…………………………………………… 3
2-1、薄膜簡介………………………………………… 3
2-2、滲透蒸發簡介…………………………………… 9
2-2-1、發展歷史………………………………… 9
2-2-2、應用領域………………………………… 10
2-2-3、原理簡介………………………………… 11
2-3、聚乙烯醇基本性質…………………………… 14
2-3-1、聚乙烯醇膜材簡介……………………… 16
2-3-2、聚乙烯醇膜材之改質…………………… 17

第三章、實驗………………………………………………… 25
3-1、實驗藥品………………………………………… 25
3-2、實驗儀器………………………………………… 26
3-3、實驗步驟………………………………………… 28
3-3-1、滲透蒸發膜材製備……………………… 28
3-3-2、滲透蒸發程序……………………………… 29
3-3-3、氣相層析儀………………………………… 31
3-3-4、X光繞射儀………………………………… 32
3-3-5、微差掃描熱差分析儀……………………… 33
3-3-6、接觸角測試………………………………… 34
3-3-7、傅立葉轉換顯微紅外線光譜儀………… 35

第四章、結果與討論………………………………………… 37
4-1、滲透蒸發效能之比較…………………………… 37
4-1-1、乙醇系統滲透蒸發效能比較……………… 38
4-1-2、異丙醇系統滲透蒸發效能比較…………… 41
4-2、鹼處理之效應…………………………………… 45
4-2-1、官能基的測定……………………………… 45
4-2-2、結晶度的測試………………………………… 47
4-2-3、親疏水性測試……………………………… 53
4-3、反應時間的估計及控制………………………… 55
4-3-1、反應時間與擴散係數的估計……………… 55
4-3-2、反應時間控制……………………………… 63
4-4、長期測試………………………………………… 64
4-5、四氟丙醇系統測試……………………………… 66

第五章、結論………………………………………………… 69

參考文獻………………………………………………… 71
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