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研究生:顏怡君
研究生(外文):Yi-Chun Yen
論文名稱:身體、心理與社會壓力對記憶習得、穩固及提取之影響
論文名稱(外文):Differential effects of Physical, Psychological, and Social Stress on Spatial Learning and Memory.
指導教授:梁庚辰梁庚辰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Keng-Chen Liang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:身體壓力心理壓力海馬社會壓力空間記憶
外文關鍵詞:spatial memorypsychological stressphysical stresssocial stresshippocampus
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一些精神疾患如憂鬱與創傷後壓力症候群與壓力經驗有密切關係,且這些疾患都有明顯的記憶異常現象。先前研究顯示,不同種類的壓力源(如:身體壓力、心理壓力、及社會壓力),會產生不同的壓力反應,並且對於學習記憶產生不同的影響。由於現有的研究顯示,壓力對記憶的影響並不一致,為釐清壓力對記憶的效果,需要針對學習與記憶的不同階段做更精確的探討。本論文探討身體壓力、心理壓力、及社會性心理壓力對於空間記憶的習得、穩固、及提取等不同階段的影響。結果顯示,學習前給予身體較強之壓力(5次電擊)會損害動物的學習表現,而訓練前給予動物心理壓力卻有促進習得的效果。在回憶測試前給予身體壓力或心理壓力並不會影響已經習得的良好記憶。然而,若動物只接受水迷津作業「單期訓練」,於測試前給予身體壓力會些微損害動物的記憶提取,但於訓練後或測試前給予心理壓力則可促進大白鼠的提取能力。然而上述效果均只出現在記憶測試的初期。最後一個實驗利用觀察同種動物受到電擊後的反應製造社會壓力,結果發現,雖然訓練前受到一次電擊身體壓力的大白鼠顯示正常的空間學習,但由此所產生之社會壓力會損害空間記憶的習得。訓練後給予社會壓力不影響記憶的穩固歷程,但於測試前給予社會壓力則對大白鼠的提取能力有促進效果。綜合以上結果,可知不同壓力源會對空間記憶的習得、穩固、及表現造成不同的影響。本實驗建立了不同壓力源影響空間學習記憶之動物模型,以此模型可以作為不同創傷經驗下對於心理徵狀的影響效果。
It has been postulated that stressful events may trigger mental dysfunction such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. The role of stress in affective or anxiety disorders has been partly linked to its influences on memory. However, studies have shown that different types of stress, such as physical, psychological or social ones, precipitate disorder symptoms with different likelihood. Numerous reports have indicated that various stressful stimuli modulate learning and memory processes. Yet evidence summarized by Lupien and McEwen (1997) indicates that stress has multiple and often conflicting effects on cognition. To elucidate the effects of stress on cognition, it is critical to evaluate the independent effects of different kinds of stress on different phases of learning and memory. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of physical, psychological, and social stress on different phases of spatial memory processing that engages the hippocampus: Spatial navigation in a Morris water maze. Groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to stress induced by footshock, stimuli paired with footshock, or obseration of conspecifics being shocked, and received multiple training sessions at the Morris water maze. Pre-training application of physical stress (footshock paired with light) impaired acquisition of Morris water maze. However, pre-training application of psychological stress enhanced spatial learning. Pre-test manipulation of either physical stress or psychological stress did not influence the retrieval of well-formed spatial memory traces. Nevertheless, if rats went through only a single session of training, pre-test application of physical stress caused a mild retrieval deficit, and pre-test present of psychological stress produced significant retrieval enhancement. Both effects were restricted to the first trial of a three-trial test session. Finally, pre-training presentation of social stress induced a deficit in the second training session; this finding suggests that social stress impaired acquisition of spatial memory. Furthermore, posttraining present of social stress did not influence consolidation of spatial memory, but pre-test application of social stress produced retrieval enhancement. In conclusion, physical, psychological and social stress produces distinct effects on acquisition, formation or expression of spatial memory. The present results established an animal model in studying the differential influences of stress in various kinds on memory processing and may eventually lead to understanding of why traumatic experience of different kinds had different effects in precipitating psychological symptoms.
第一章 導論……………………………………………………………1
引言………………………………………………………………….1
壓力來源之種類…………………………………………………….3
壓力的生理反應…………………………………………………….7
壓力相關因子的中樞作用………………………………………….9
壓力對學習記憶之效果…………………………………………..12
對於不同學習記憶階段之影響…………………………………..15
本論文之研究目的………………………………………………..18
第二章 實驗材料與方法…………………………………………….21
受試者……………………………………………………………..21
實驗器材與程序…………………………………………………..21
統計分析…………………………………………………………..27
第三章 實驗結果…………………………………………………….29
實驗一:身體壓力對空間學習記憶之影響………………………29
實驗二:心理壓力對空間學習記憶之影響………………………39
實驗三:社會心理壓力對空間學習記憶之影響…………………50
第四章 綜合討論…………………………………………………….55
研究方法與測量上的考量………………………………………..56
皮質固酮—壓力影響記憶的可能媒介…………………………..57
身體壓力對空間學習記憶之影響………………………………..59
心理與社會壓力對空間學習記憶之影響………………………..63
未來展望與臨床應用……………………………………………..66
參考文獻……………………………………………………………….69
附表、附圖說明……………………………………………………….83
附表…………………………………………………………………….89
附圖…………………………………………………………………….91
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