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研究生:韓慧雅
研究生(外文):Hui-Ya Han
論文名稱:新聯結隱示記憶之必要條件
論文名稱(外文):The Necessary Conditions for Implicit Memory of New Associations
指導教授:葉怡玉葉怡玉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yeh, Yei-Yu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:隱示記憶新聯結
外文關鍵詞:Implicit memoryNew associations
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本研究的主要目的在探討無關項目(情境項與目標項)間聯結重複促發效果(associative repetition priming effect)產生的關鍵條件。本研究認為產生新聯結隱示記憶的必要條件有二:一為穩定的心理表徵,二為目標項的先激發。利用前測區分二組無關但不同聯結程度的刺激配對,分別實施於實驗一A與實驗一B,以驗證有意義聯結項目(meaningfully relate two items)的學習方式,是否可使所有圖詞與詞詞配對組合都產生穩定的心理表徵,藉由序列呈現的文字辨識測驗,展現新聯結的隱示記憶。結果顯示只有容易聯結組能產生圖詞或詞詞新聯結的隱示記憶。實驗二、三使用容易聯結組刺激,排除登錄—提取一致性的必要性,結果顯示即使情境項呈現30毫秒,只要有足夠時間先激發目標項便可產生圖詞新聯結的隱示記憶,但詞詞的配對無法產生新聯結的隱示記憶。此結果符合雙碼假設,圖可引發雙重聯結到概念節點,使得聯結較強。反之,當情境項與目標項的時距縮短為30毫秒時,此雙重聯結無法迅速激發目標項,反而產生比詞詞配對較低的記憶表現。實驗四改用圖字比對作業為配對學習方式,驗證有意義聯結對穩定心理表徵的影響。結果顯示,即使序列呈現時有充足的時間先激發目標項,容易聯結組的刺激也無法產生新聯結的隱示記憶。實驗五以完全相同於Uttl等人(2003)的序列呈現程序,再次驗證困難聯結組與容易聯結組的新聯結隱示記憶效果,結果同於實驗一。五個實驗的結果顯示有意義聯結兩項目的學習方式,並非產生新聯結重複促發效果的必要條件,但為形成穩定心理表徵的影響因素。穩定的心理表徵與目標項的先激發,確實為產生新聯結隱示記憶產生的必要條件。
This study examined the conditions necessary for obtaining associative repetition priming effect (ARP) for unrelated pairs with an implicit word identification task. On the basis of the findings of a previous study (Uttl, Graf, & Cosentino, 2003), we proposed that stable representations of the new associations and pre-activation of the target’s representation are both necessary for implicit memory of new associations. Through a pilot study, we selected two sets of unrelated pairs by the ease of relating items in each pair. The difficult set was used as stimuli in Experiment 1 A and the easy set was used in Experiment 1B for the participants to rate their likings of the context item in each pair for 2 s and also generate a sentence that meaningfully related the two items in each pair in 15 s. In the test phase, the participants rated likings of the context item again and then identified the target item that was presented with threshold duration. The results showed ARP only with the easy set for both picture-word and word-word pairs. Recognition rates to intact pairs that contained the newly learned associations were higher than to recombined pairs, which in turns were higher than to new pairs reflecting the item repetition priming effect (IRP). Each context item was presented for 30 ms in the test phase of Experiments 2 and 3 with the easy set to change the test context, with a delay of 1970 ms to pre-activate the target item in the former and a delay of 30 ms to prevent pre-activation in the latter experiment. The results showed IRP in both experiments, and ARP manifested only with picture-word pairs in Experiment 2. With a brief presentation of the context item, 1970 ms was sufficient to pre-activate the target item in picture-word pairs perhaps because both visual and verbal links of a picture connected to the target word. However, the existence of two links became detrimental when the delay was 30 ms as the overall performance with picture-word pairs was worse than word-word pairs in Experiment 3. To further confirm that a stable representation of the newly learned associations is necessary, a matching task was used in Experiment 4 with the easy set of picture-word pairs while the test phase remained the same as that of Experiment 2. The results showed IRP only. In Experiment 5, we replicated the previous study to exclude the possibility that the results of Experiment 1 arose from a slight difference in methodology. The results are the same as in Experiment 1. The results from these five experiments suggested that sentence generation that meaningfully relates two unrelated items in the study phase is important for forming sable representations, but not sufficient for the manifestation of implicit memory of new associations. Consistent with the hypothesis, the stable representations of the newly acquired associations and the pre-activation of target items indeed are necessary for implicit memory of new associations between unrelated pairs after a single study trial.
緒論………………………………………………………………………1
「隱示記憶」與「顯示記憶」…………………………………….1
「隱示記憶」與「顯示記憶」的分離現象……………………….2
「隱示記憶」理論解釋…………………………………………….6
新訊息隱示記憶的研究…………………………………………….7
「新聯結隱示記憶」的理論解解………………………………....8
「新聯結隱示記憶」的研究結果………………………………....9
研究目的……………………………………………………………… 15
研究方法……………………………………………………………….19
實驗一:以造句精緻登錄檢驗難、易聯結組,在詞詞、圖詞配對的新聯結重複促發效果…………………………………………..22
實驗二:精緻登錄學習,維持充足時間,但去除測驗提取線索,以檢驗新聯結重複促發效果……………………..………………37
實驗三:精緻登錄的學習方式,縮短目標項先激發的時間,以檢驗新聯結重複促發效果………………………….……………….41
實驗四:淺層處理配對聯結的圖詞比對作業,充足時間先激發目標,以檢驗新聯結重複促發效果………………………………..45
實驗五:完全仿製Uttl等人(2003)實驗,以確定序列呈現對新聯結重複促發效果的影響………………………………………...50
綜合討論……………………………………………………. …………57
回應過去相關研究………………………………………………...58
釐清研究可能問題………………………………………………...61
未來研究方向………………………………………………. …………63
心像可產生穩定表徵的意涵……………………………………...63
排除顯示記憶介入的其他測驗方式……………………………...63
參考文獻………………………………………………………………. 65
附錄……………………………………………………………………. 73
作者簡歷………………………………………………………………. 75


附表目次

表 一:實驗比較表…..…………..…………..…………..……… 18
表 二:二組刺激特性統計資料..………………………………... 21
表 三:刺激材料組合範例…………………………………….. 25
表 四:實驗一A描述統計資料……………..…….................. 32
表 五:實驗一A描述統計資料..……………………………….. 34
表 六:實驗二描述統計資料...……………………………….. 39
表 七:實驗三描述統計資料...……………………………….. 43
表 八:刺激材料特性統計資料...……………………………….. 46
表 九:實驗四描述統計資料...……………………………….. 49
表 十:實驗五A描述統計資料...……………………………….. 54
表 十一:實驗五B描述統計資料……………………………….. 55
表 十二:本實驗研究一覽表...……………………………….. 54





附圖目次
圖 一:實驗一學習階段造句作業的程序說明……………......……28
圖 二:中文雙字詞快速辨識的閾限測試………………………... 28
圖 三:實驗一測驗階段文字辨識作業的程序說明……………... 29
圖 四:實驗一B情境類型與配對型式之實驗結果……............... 34
圖 五:實驗二測驗階段文字辨識作業的程序說明………………. 38
圖 六:實驗二情境項類型與配對型式之實驗結果….…….......... 40
圖 七:實驗三測驗階段文字辨識作業的程序說明…………....... 42
圖 八:實驗三情境項類型與配對型式之實驗結果………………. 44
圖 九:實驗四學習階段圖詞比對作業的程序說明……………... 48
圖 十:實驗四測驗階段文字辨識作業的程序說明…………..…. 48
圖十一:實驗五學習階段造句作業的程序說明…………….….. 52
圖十二:實驗五測驗階段文字辨識作業的程序說明……….….. 53
圖十三:Stark與McClelland (2000)連續辨識與再嘗試作業.. 64
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