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研究生:許儷絹
研究生(外文):Li-Chuan Hsu
論文名稱:平面表徵在知覺消失現象所扮演的角色
論文名稱(外文):The role of surface representation in perceptual blindness.
指導教授:葉素玲葉素玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Su-Ling Yeh
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:179
中文關鍵詞:知覺消失平面表徵邊界適應平面競爭
外文關鍵詞:surface representationperceptual blindnessboundary adaptationsurface competition
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知覺填補(PFI)與運動引發視盲(MIB)是兩種具有類似特性的知覺消失現象:注視包含目標物與背景的畫面一段時間,目標物會消失、再現,如此重複好幾次。過去認為此二者由不同的機制所造成:PFI需要經過邊界適應及背景質地的內插,而MIB則與注意力有關。本研究以PFI與MIB為例,探討平面表徵在視覺消失現象所扮演的角色,並提出一個理論模型來解釋。在此模型中,同一平面內的競爭會受到邊界適應的影響,而當目標物沈入背景而與其區隔為不同平面時,不同平面間的競爭則不受邊界的影響。當目標物與背景競爭之後,背景質地便經由內插計算將目標物的區域填補起來,且必須建立了平面表徵之後,注意力才能作用在其上。因此,知覺消失現象的機制,必須先有平面表徵的建立,接著產生目標物與背景在相同平面內或不同平面間競爭,當背景贏得勝利,則會進行內插填補,導致目標物消失。注意力則是作用在形成目標物的邊界上。本研究共分兩大部分。第一部份(實驗一、二)確立PFI與MIB都能受到平面表徵與邊界適應歷程的影響。第二部分(實驗三、四、五)則由邊界適應、質地特性、與注意力操弄來檢驗所提出的知覺消失模型。實驗一操弄像差深度,將PFI目標物與背景區隔為不同平面,結果目標物的消失會受到不同平面表徵的影響(與MIB相似)。在實驗二中,觀察者先適應某一邊界,則發現MIB目標物的消失會受到先前邊界適應的影響(與PFI相似)。實驗三操弄邊界長短作為邊界適應歷程的指標,探討邊界適應與平面表徵的關係。當目標凸出或與背景同平面,則邊界愈長目標物愈難消失;若目標物沈入背景,則其消失不受邊界的影響。實驗四操弄目標物與背景的像差深度、背景質地運動與否、與質地成分的知覺組織關係。結果發現當目標物沈入平面、背景質地以一致的方向移動、或質地成分具群聚關係時,目標物最容易消失。實驗五藉由指導語操弄注意力投注在目標或背景,結果發現當注意目標物時,目標物較易消失。綜合五個實驗的結果,支持本研究所提之知覺消失的理論模型。
PFI and MIB are two phenomena of perceptual blindness in which perceptually salient target repeatedly disappear and reappear in the background after prolonged viewing. They were considered different mechanisms in which PFI was caused by boundary adaptation and fast interpolation while MIB was due to high-level (e.g., attention) processes. We argue, instead, that the two phenomena share common mechanisms and surface representations of the target and the background play a greater role than has been hitherto considered. In this study we examined, by using PFI and MIB, the role of surface representation in perceptual blindness, and a model of perceptual blindness was proposed. In this model, boundary adaptation operates when the border ownership belongs to the target, while surface competition occurs when the target and the background are separated into different surfaces and the target loses the border ownership. Attention facilitates the process of boundary adaptation by operating on the boundary that belongs to the target. In Experiments 1 and 2 respectively, depth ordering between the target and the background was manipulated in PFI, and pre-adaptation to the target boundary was manipulated in MIB. Results from these two experiments demonstrated that PFI and MIB were both influenced by surface competition and boundary adaptation. In Experiment 3, the total length of the target boundary and the disparity depth cue were manipulated. We found that when the target and the background were on the same surface or the target was seen above the background the fading of the target was influenced by the length of the target boundary; while when the target was perceived to be behind the background, the fading of the target was free from the influence of the boundary. In Experiment 4, the properties of the texture elements of the background (depth ordering, motion coherence, and grouping) were manipulated. The fading of the target was found easiest when the target were sunk into the background, when the background texture elements were in coherent motion, and when there was good grouping between texture elements. In Experiment 5, participants’ attention was manipulated and the effect of attention was found to facilitate the adaptation of the target boundary. Results from all the experiments support the model that perceptual blindness occurs after surface representation is established.
壹、 導言 1
知覺填補(Perceptual filling-in, PFI) 8
影響參數 8
兩階段理論(Two stage theory) 13
解剖與生理證據 19
注意力的影響 21
運動引發視盲(motion induced blindness, MIB) 23
影響參數 24
MIB可能的引發機制 26
本研究所提之知覺消失現象的機制 30
Hsu、Yeh與Kramer (in press) 30
形成平面表徵的重要性 34
刺激組態間的競爭關係可能是作用在平面內或是平面間 39
知覺消失的模型 41
貳、研究目的 43
實驗簡介 45
參、第一部份:確立PFI與MIB具有共同受平面表徵及邊界適應影響的機制51
實驗一 53
觀察者 54
刺激與儀器 54
程序 55
實驗結果與討論 57
實驗二 57
觀察者 58
刺激與儀器 58
程序 59
實驗結果與討論 60
第一部份實驗的結果與討論 62
肆、第二部分:檢驗本研究所提之知覺消失的模型 63
實驗三 65
實驗三A:採用不同大小的目標物來表示不同的邊界長度 66
實驗三B:控制目標物的面積,變動不同的邊界長度 68
實驗三C:控制空間頻率及目標物面積,變動目標物的邊界 70
實驗三的結果與討論 72
實驗四 74
觀察者 75
刺激與儀器 75
程序 75
結果與討論 75
實驗五 77
實驗五A:顏色控制作業 79
實驗五B注意力操弄:3D-群聚關係作業 81
實驗五C注意力操弄:3D-隨機點背景作業 83
實驗五結果與討論 85
伍、綜合討論 87
邊界在平面表徵上所扮演的角色 90
背景質地的影響 91
刺激組態間的競爭關係 92
競爭的來源 94
注意力的角色 95
陸、結語 99
柒、參考文獻 103
捌、圖表 121
作者簡歷 179
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