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研究生:簡榮村
研究生(外文):Jung-Tsun Chien
論文名稱:中華鱉(Pelodiscussinensis)腦垂體糖蛋白激素cDNA序列mRNA生成調控之分析
論文名稱(外文):Analysis of cDNA Sequence and Regulation of mRNA Levels of Pituitary Glycoprotein Hormones in The Chinese Soft-shell Turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis)
指導教授:余玉林余玉林引用關係
指導教授(外文):John Yuh-Lin Yu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:生態學與演化生物學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生態學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:甲釋素性釋素基因調控基因選殖次單元甲狀腺素演化歧異度次單元腦垂體糖蛋白激素促甲狀腺激素促濾胞激素促黃體激素
外文關鍵詞:GnRHgene expression and regulationsubunitsubunitdiversityevolutionlutropinTRHthyroid hormonephylogenetic treethyrotropinfollitropinpituitary glycoprotein hormonesinensisChinese soft-shell turtlePleodiscus
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腦垂體糖蛋白激素促甲狀腺激素、促濾胞激素及促黃體激素,係由alpha及beta兩個不同的次單元所構成。在同一動物種別中,alpha次單元是相同的;而beta次單元則具有種別性與激素的特異性。目前這些激素cDNA的選殖及其調控研究,主要在哺乳類、鳥類、兩棲類及魚類,而爬行類則是闕如。為了能更瞭解脊椎動物腦垂體糖蛋白激素cDNA的核苷酸與胺基酸,在序列親緣上的多樣性,與mRNA生成的調控,本論文探討中華鱉(Pelodiscus sinensis) �悁董璊蜓P促甲狀腺激素、促濾胞激素及促黃體激素�狾董璊筧DNA的選殖並探討其mRNA生成的調控。
本研究利用反轉錄聚合酶鏈反應(RT-PCR)及快速互補基因末端放大(RACE)方法進行中華鱉糖蛋白激素cDNA的選殖。選殖出的alpha次單元,其cDNA由670-bp的核苷酸所組成,其中包含71-bp的5’未轉譯區,363-bp的轉譯區及219-bp的3’端未轉譯區及17-bp的聚腺苷尾端(poly A trait);轉譯區轉譯出具120個胺基酸的前體蛋白質包含24個胺基酸的訊息肽及96個胺基酸的分泌型成熟蛋白質。TSH beta次單元cDNA由580-bp的核苷酸所組成,其中包含67-bp的5’未轉譯區,402-bp的轉譯區及97-bp的3’端未轉譯區及14-bp的聚腺苷尾端(poly A trait);轉譯區轉譯出133個胺基酸的前體蛋白質包含19個胺基酸的訊息肽及114個胺基酸的分泌型成熟蛋白質。FSH beta次單元選殖出602-bp核苷酸的cDNA,其中包含34-bp的5’未轉錄區,396-bp的轉譯區及206-bp的3’端未轉譯區,聚腺苷尾端(poly A trait)尚未完成;轉譯區轉譯出具131個胺基酸的前體蛋白質包含20個胺基酸的訊息肽及111個胺基酸的分泌型成熟蛋白質。LH beta cDNA僅轉譯區大部分及3’未轉譯區被選殖出來。本研究發現:beta次單元中有12個半胱胺酸(形成6個雙硫鍵),及alpha次單元有10個半胱胺酸(形成5個雙硫鍵),其數目及位置在中華鱉與其他四足類,是相同並未有演化與變異;alpha次單元及FSH beta次單元,各有兩個;但TSH beta次單元則有一個與糖化作用有關的天門冬胺酸,其在位置與數目,亦是相同而沒有演化。中華鱉腦垂體糖蛋白激素的胺基酸序列與鳥類之相似度最高(超過80%),而與魚類則最低(低於60%)。因此,中華鱉的腦垂體糖蛋白激素在親緣上與鳥類最近。本研究所建構包含爬行類及其他脊椎動物之FSH beta及TSH beta分泌型成熟蛋白質之親緣樹形圖,為文獻中首度報告。中華鱉離體腦垂體培養的研究顯示:性釋素(GnRH)及甲釋素(TRH)正向調控alpha次單元mRNA生成;TRH正向調控TSH beta mRNA生成,而甲狀腺素(thyroid hormone)則是負向調控。GnRH亦正向調控FSH beta mRNA生成。此結果顯示中華鱉腦垂體糖蛋白激素之mRNA生成的激素調控機制,與哺乳類及鳥類相似,在各類別脊椎動物並無演化與變異。
The pituitary glycoprotein hormones (thyrotropin, TSH; follitropin, FSH; lutropin, LH) are composed of two dissimilar subunit molecules, alpha and beta subunits are identical in a species; while beta subunits are specific and determine the hormone activity and species specificity. The comparative studies of cloning of cDNAs encoding these hormones and their gene regulations have been extensively conducted in mammals, birds, amphibian and fish. However, virtually no information has been available in reptiles. Reptiles occupy a key position in evolutionary history of vertebrates as the birds and mammals evolved from them. For better understanding the phylogenetic diversity and evolution of the cDNA nucleotide and peptide sequences of pituitary glycoprotein hormones in vertebrates, a study was conducted to clone the cDNAs of alpha subunit and the beta subunits of TSH, LH, and FSH of the Chinese soft-shell turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, and to investigate the regulation of gene expression. The cDNAs were cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The cloned alpha cDNA consists of 670-bp nucleotides, including 71-bp 5’-untranslated region (UTR), 363-bp open reading frame, and 3’-UTR of 219-bp nucleotides, following by a 17-bp poly A trait. It encodes a 120 amino acid precursor molecule of alpha subunit with a putative signal peptide of 24 amino acids and a mature protein of 96 amino acids. The cloned TSH beta cDNA consists of 580-bp nucleotides, including 67-bp of 5’UTR, 402-bp of the open reading frame, and 97-bp of 3’UTR followed by a 14 bp poly A trait. It encodes a putative precursor protein of 133 amino acids with signal peptide of 19 amino acids and a mature protein of 114 amino acids. The cloned FSH�涀eta cDNA consists of 602-bp nucleotides, including 34-bp of 5’UTR, 396-bp open reading frame and 3’UTR of 206-bp nucleotides. No polyasenylation site was identified yet. It encodes a 131-amino acid FSH�涀eta precursor molecule with a putative signal peptide of 20 amino acids and a mature protein of 111 amino acids. With regard to LH beta cDNA, only the major region of the open reading frame was cloned. It was observed that the number and position of 10 and 12 cysteine residues, presumably forming 5 and 6 disulfide bonds for alpha and beta subunits respectively, are conserved for the Chinese soft-shell turtle as those of other tetrapods. Two asparagine N-linked glycosylation sites are also conserved for alpha and FSH beta; while one asparagine N-linked glycosylation site is conserved for TSH beta as found in other tetrapods. The amino acid sequences of the Chinese soft-shell turtle pituitary share the highest identities (over 80%) with birds and the lowest identities (less than 60%) with fish. Accordingly, the pituitary glycoprotein hormones of the Chinese soft-shell turtle are phylogenetically closest to those of birds. The phylogenetic trees of vertebrate FSH beta�� molecules, based on their peptide sequence homology, are presented for the first time in literature with inclusion of reptilian species. In vitro studies of the turtle pituitary demonstrated that the alpha-mRNA levels can be up-regulated by both GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) and TRH (TSH-releasing hormone). The TSH�涀eta mRNA levels can be up-regulated by TRH and down-regulated by thyroid hormones. The FSH�涀eta mRNA levels can be up-regulated by GnRH. These findings imply that the regulation of pituitary glycoprotein hormone gene expression of the Chinese soft-shell turtle resemble to those of mammals.
頁次
總摘要 1
英文摘要 4
I.引言 7
II.文獻檢閱與回顧 10
II-1 腦垂體糖蛋白激素之種類及分子結構 10
II-2 腦垂體糖蛋白激素�悀��狾董璊葫膍s概況 11
II-3 �悀��狾董璊� mRNA生成的調控 14
II-4 �捋P�狾董璊萼穧]的演化關係 17
III. 中華鱉腦垂體糖蛋白激素�悀��狾董璊萼穧]選殖、定序與基因表現調控 19
III-1 糖蛋白激素�悁董璊萼穧]選殖、定序與基因調控 19
III-1.1摘要 19
III-1.2前言 22
III-1.3材料與方法 22
III-1.4結果 27
III-1.5討論 28
III-2 促甲狀腺激素�狾董璊萼穧]選殖、定序與基因表現調控 41
III-2.1摘要 41
III-2.2前言 43
III-2.3材料與方法 43
III-2.4結果 48
III-2.5討論 49
III-3促濾胞激素�狾董璊萼穧]選殖定序與基因表現調控 63
III-3.1摘要 63
III-3.2前言 66
III-3.3材料與方法 66
III-3.4結果 70
III-3.5討論 71
III-4促黃體激素�狾董璊萼穧]選殖之研究 82
III-3.1摘要 82
III-3.2前言 84
III-3.3材料與方法 84
III-3.4結果 85
III-3.5討論 86
IV. 綜合討論 91
IV-1 �悁董璊� 91
IV-2 TSH��, FSH��, 及LH�� 次單元 91
IV-3雙硫鍵數目與位置 92
IV-4天門冬胺酸之位置與數目 93
IV-5促濾胞激素、促甲狀腺激素促黃體激素�狾董璊該i基酸序列之動物類別比較 94
IV-6促濾胞激素及促黃體激素與受體分子結合作用位置 95
IV-7 mRNA 生成之激素調控 97
V. 結論 100
VI. 參考文獻 103
作者簡介與著作目錄 124
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