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研究生:黃光瀛
研究生(外文):Kuang-Ying Huang
論文名稱:陽明山四種共域猛禽於繁殖期間之食性研究
論文名稱(外文):The Diets of Four Sympatric Raptors in Breeding Seasons at Yangmingshan
指導教授:林曜松林曜松引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yao-Sung Lin
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:生態學與演化生物學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生態學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:鳳頭蒼鷹松雀鷹陽明山東方蜂鷹猛禽大冠鷲食性
外文關鍵詞:RaptorYangmingshanAccipiter trivirgatusDietAccipiter virgatusSpilornis cheelaPernis ptilohynchus
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摘要

本論文探討陽明山地區共域的松雀鷹(Accipiter virgatus)、鳳頭蒼鷹(Accipiter trivirgatus)、大冠鷲(Spilornis cheela)與蜂鷹(Pernis ptilorhynchus)四種猛禽於繁殖期間食物資源利用之情形。於1993年至2002年研究期間,分別以直接觀察法、食殘法與食繭法收集此四種猛禽之食物種類與頻次,並依此估算各鷹種之食物生物量、食物多樣性與食性寬度,同時比較種間食性之異同。結果顯示,此四種共域猛禽之食物多樣性、食物平均程度及食性寬度各不相同。鷹種間使用不同的食物資源(包括綱別、種類組成及種類生物量組成)。松雀鷹之食物共紀錄871筆,分屬5綱30類型,其中鳥類不論以頻次(58.1%)或生物量(84.8%)而言均為松雀鷹最主要的食物;鳳頭蒼鷹之食物共紀錄621筆,分屬5綱41類型,其中以鳥類(頻次42.5%,生物量51.4%)及哺乳類(頻次19.2%,生物量45.4%)為主。大冠鷲之食物共紀錄86筆,分屬5綱21類型,其中爬蟲類 (頻次70.9%,生物量64.3%)為大冠鷲之主食。蜂鷹之食物總共有123筆紀錄,分屬3綱8類型,其中昆蟲類(胡蜂) (頻次78.9%,生物量83.5%)為其主食。雖然松雀鷹與鳳頭蒼鷹雖有較高的食物種類重疊度,但此兩種鷹捕食之獵物體型有所區隔。松雀鷹以體型較小的獵物為主食,鳳頭蒼鷹則以體型較大的獵物為主食。松雀鷹與蜂鷹於繁殖期間有明顯之食性轉移現象,因此呈現月份間變化。其中松雀鷹由鳥類轉移到昆蟲類(熊蟬),而蜂鷹由兼食兩生類及爬蟲類轉移到完全以昆蟲類(胡蜂)為食。此外,本研究結果亦顯示不同食性觀測法之適用性及效能隨食物類型及鷹種而異。就整體效能而言,松雀鷹以食殘法較佳,而鳳頭蒼鷹以直接觀察法較優。而合併食殘法與食繭法之結果,可測出食物類型比率或單位時間測得之食物類型數目及食物樣本數均明顯增加。
Abstract

The diets of four sympatric raptors, i.e., Besra Sparrowhawk (Accipiter virgatus), Crested Goshawk (Accipiter trivirgatus), Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela), and Oriental Honey Buzzard (Pernis ptilorhynchus) in breeding seasons were studied from 1993 to 2002 in Yangmingshan area, northern Taiwan. Three approaches, including direct observation, food remain method and pellet method, were applied to study prey samples in nesting places. Prey types and frequency were recorded to measure prey biomass and food diversity. The prey compositions and food niche overlap among raptors were also quantified. As a result, food habits of the four sympatric raptors varied in food diversity, food evenness, and food niche breadth. The food resource partitioning among these four raptors included prey class, prey frequency composition and prey biomass composition. In a total of 871 prey items of Besra Sparrowhawk, 5 classes and 30 prey types were recorded. Birds were the major prey in both frequency (58.1%) and biomass (84.8%). The prey composition of Crested Goshawk in 621 prey items included 5 classes and 41 prey types. Birds (42.5% by frequency, 51.4% of total biomass) and mammals (19.2% by frequency, 45.4% of total biomass) were the major preys. In 86 prey items of Serpent Eagle’s diet, 5 classes and 21 prey types were verified. Reptiles (70.9% by frequency, 64.3% of total biomass) were the major food of this species. Three classes and 8 prey types were included in Oriental Honey Buzzard’s 123 prey items which insects (paper wasp) were the most important prey (78.9% by frequency, 83.5% of total biomass). Although the Besra Sparrowhawk and Crested Goshawk has a higher overlap in prey composition, their prey sizes are quite different. The Besra Sparrowhawk fed on smaller preys while Crested Goshawk on larger ones. During the breeding season, obvious prey shifts were found in Besra Sparrowhawk and Oriental Honey Buzzard. Besra Sparrowhawk shifted their prey from birds to insects (cicada) while the Oriental Honey Buzzard changed its role from an irregular frog and lizard forager to a wasp specialist. A comparison was made for the various methods applied in this study in terms of their effectiveness, efficiency, advantages, and disadvantages. The food remain method worked best for Besra Sparrowhawk. Direct Observation method worked best for Crested Goshawk. However, combining food remain and pellet methods not only improved the proportion of prey types and prey items identified, but also the efficiency per unit time.
壹、引 言 1
一、研究動機 1
猛禽的重要性 1
猛禽食性研究的重要性及回顧 2
研究猛禽食性的方法 3
二、研究目的 4
貳、材料與方法 5
一、研究物種的描述 5
二、研究地點 8
三、食性樣本觀測方法 8
(一)直接觀察法(目視法)的樣本收集與辨識 8
(二)食殘法的採集和辨識 9
(三)食繭法的採集 10
方法的比較 10
蜂鷹資料收集與處理 11
四、食物特徵分析 11
特徵分析 11
食性比較 12
獵物多樣性分析 12
參、結果 15
一、松雀鷹食性特徵 15
出現頻度 15
獵物生物量的分佈 15
食物類別於繁殖季之月份變化情形 16
獵物多樣性指數分析 16
二、鳳頭蒼鷹食性特徵 17
出現頻度 17
生物量的分佈 17
食物類別於繁殖季之月份變化情形 17
食物多樣性指數分析 18
三、大冠鷲食性特徵 18
出現頻度 18
生物量的分佈 19
食物類別於繁殖季之月份變化情形 19
食物多樣性指數分析 19
四、蜂鷹食性特徵 20
出現頻度 20
生物量的分佈 20
食物類別於繁殖季之月份變化情形 21
獵物多樣性指數分析 21
獵物活動高度和蜂巢的來源 21
五、鷹種間食性的比較 22
六、鷹種間食性棲位重疊度與食性相似性之集群分析 23
七、食性採集觀測方法的比較 23
田野資料 23
結果 24
效能的比較 26
肆、討 論 28
(1) 鳳頭蒼鷹、松雀鷹、大冠鷲、蜂鷹於繁殖期間的食性特質 28
(2) 鳳頭蒼鷹、松雀鷹、大冠鷲、蜂鷹的差異 30
(3) 猛禽食性觀測法優缺點的探討。 31
伍、參考文獻 36
表目錄 44
表1.四鷹種於研究期間所觀測紀錄而得之食物樣本數 44
表2 . 於25個松雀鷹巢用不同方法所收集到之不同食物綱類別樣本數 45
表3 .松雀鷹食物綱類別, 種型及數目 46
表4 .松雀鷹用不同方法所收集到之不同食物綱類別生物量 47
表5 .於25個松雀鷹巢所收集之食物種類/型,頻次,生物量及比率 48
表6 .松雀鷹於繁殖季節不同月份食物綱類別頻率及綱生物量組成 49
表7 .松雀鷹食物樣本數、綱別、種類/型數與食物多樣性指數值及食性寬度 50
表8 . 於11個鳳頭蒼鷹巢用不同方法所收集到之不同食物綱類別樣本數 51
表9 . 鳳頭蒼鷹食物綱類別, 種型和數目 52
表10 .鳳頭蒼鷹用不同方法所收集到之不同食物綱類別生物量 53
表11 . 於11個鳳頭蒼鷹巢所收集之食物種類/型,頻次,生物量及比率 54
表12. 鳳頭蒼鷹於繁殖季節不同月份食物綱類別及綱生物量組成 55
表13.鳳頭蒼鷹食物樣本數, 綱數, 種類/型數與食物多樣性指數值及食性寬(FNB) 56
表14. 4個大冠鷲巢以目視法所得之食物類別,頻次與生物量及比率 57
表15.4個大冠鷲巢於繁殖季節不同月份食物綱類別及綱生物量組成 58
表16.大冠鷲食物樣本數, 綱數, 種類/型數與食物多樣性指數值及食性寬度(FNB) 59
表 17.蜂鷹食物類別, 頻次與生物量及比率 60
表18. 三種胡蜂成蟲的體長和體重 61
表19 .蜂鷹於繁殖季節不同月份食物類別及生物量組成 62
表20 .蜂鷹食物樣本數, 綱數, 種類/型數與食物多樣性指數值及食性寬度(FNB) 63
表21.四鷹種不同食物類別樣本數(N)、平均體重(g) ± SD及所佔比率(%) 64
表22.以空間活動能力區分四鷹種不同獵物類別之平均體重(g) ± SD及所佔比率(%) 65
表23.四種猛禽食性棲位重疊值 66
表24. 松雀鷹與鳳頭蒼鷹以三種食性樣本採集方法所紀錄到的食物類型 67
表25. 三種食性樣本收集方法之效能比較 68
表26 .食物樣本鑑定到綱別及鳥類食物鑑定至種的比率的檢定值 69
表27 .三種食性樣本收集方法每小時測到食物樣本及食物類別的效能比較 70
表28.四鷹種食物樣本數, 綱數, 種/型數與食物多樣性指數值及食性寬度(FNB) 71
圖目錄 72
圖1 .陽明山地區所發現之松雀鷹,鳳頭蒼鷹,大冠鷲與蜂鷹巢區分佈圖. 72
圖2 .陽明山地區松雀鷹、鳳頭蒼鷹、大冠鷲、蜂鷹繁殖時期。 73
圖3 .1993-2003年期間,陽明山國家公園東方蜂鷹各月份定點紀錄. 74
圖4 .東方蜂鷹不同食物類型於不同時期之頻次比率與生物量比率. 75
圖5 .於陽明山地區穿越線調查胡蜂巢高度的分布情形. 76
圖6 .東方蜂鷹於不同時段捕獲之烏胸馬蜂巢數目與烏胸馬蜂回蜂巢與離開蜂巢次數的關係。 77
圖7 . 陽明山地區松雀鷹,鳳頭蒼鷹,大冠鷲與蜂鷹食性集群分析圖. 78
圖8 .於1998年繁殖季以旬為期程,以目視法,食殘法、食繭法三種食性樣本收集方法在(A)松雀鷹、(B)鳳頭蒼鷹所鑑別出的食物類型累積數. 80
圖9.以目視法,食殘法、食繭法三種食性樣本收集方法紀錄松雀鷹的不同食物類型之生物量。 81
圖10 .以三種方法記錄鳳頭蒼鷹巢不同食物種類的生物量。 82
圖11.松雀鷹與鳳頭蒼鷹捕食之獵物重量與所捕食之該級獵物總重量之關係. 83
附錄 1 84
附錄2 86
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