(3.210.184.142) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/13 17:58
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林孟龍
研究生(外文):Meng-Lung Lin
論文名稱:以景觀層級界定生物多樣性保育範圍-中尺度資源衛星MODIS影像的應用
論文名稱(外文):Landscape Ecology Approach in Biodiversity Conservation Using MODIS Imagery
指導教授:王鑫王鑫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shin Wang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:地理環境資源學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:地理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:305
中文關鍵詞:NDVIMODIS生物多樣性景觀生態系統
外文關鍵詞:NDVIBiodiversityMODISEcosystemLandscape
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:6
  • 點閱點閱:306
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
景觀生態學著重「探討區域裡不同空間單元內生物與環境之間的相互關係,這樣的關係不僅反映在一個空間單元內不同生態組成的垂直關係,也牽涉到不同空間單元間的水平關係」。
本研究從「景觀層級」探討生物多樣性的保育範圍,以2002年MODIS影像進行分析,取得的影像覆誑�臺灣,具有23個時間點的資料,提供後續生態分析與相關研究使用。
在台灣,闊葉林生態系統佔有36.81%、混交林生態系統佔有12.25%與針葉林生態系統佔有10.44%。旱作生態系統則有16.30%,稻作生態系統則為6.87%,都市生態系統為4.85%,其餘生態系統類型所佔比例皆小於4%。
藉由NDVI間接評估植被弁遄A對於目前嚴重缺乏植被生態弁酮膍s的臺灣而言,是最好的方法。未來臺灣若仍缺乏現地調查的生態資料,可持續以VI進行基礎的分析與評估。
本研究加總2002年冬、春、夏、秋四個季節的NDVI數值,並以生態系統類型為基礎,評估「闊葉林、針葉林、混交林、稻作與旱作等五個以植被覆賑陞D的生態系統」的植被弁遄C然後挑選核心區,並劃定緩衝區,即可形成具有整體性考量的景觀層級生物多樣性保育範圍。


Landscape ecology involves the study of relationships between organisms and their living environments within a specific region. The relationships involve ecological and spatial relationships in a spatial unit and between different spatial units. In this study we discuss the definition of landscape, landscape structure, and landscape function. Base on the viewpoints of GST, we consider that the definition of “Landscape” is an area of land containing a mosaic of different ecosystems. Ecosystems are the components in a landscape.
Taiwan’s protected area system planning in this study is an example to integrate survey, analysis of Landscape ecology, and planning. There are 23 MODIS images in 2002 and provide useful data for us to analyze land cover dynamics in Taiwan.
Among all ecosystem types, broadleaf forest, mixed forest and conifer forest ecosystem accounts for 36.81, 12.25, and 10.44%, followed by dry field and rice ecosystem with 16.30 and 6.87% respectively. Urban ecosystem accounts for 4.85%, and all others are less than 4%.
NDVI is the useful derived information from MODIS for assessing vegetation function, especially for areas lack of information in ecological researches like Taiwan. The NDVI is formed in terms of the ratio of the difference between the visible and near infrared bands and shows a sharp response between forest and non-forest areas.
After analyzing the four MODIS images in different seasons of 2002, we calculate the NDVI values of broadleaf forest, conifer forest, mixed forest, rice, and dry field ecosystems. Using the technique of GIS to select core areas and buffer areas in order to have a holistic protected area system.
Integration will be the most important issue in 21 century. In the research we try hard to integrate survey, analysis, planning in order to provide useful information to decision maker. The most important of all is using RS imagery to provide key ecological information to planner and decision maker.


第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1-1 研究背景……………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1-2 研究動機……………………………………………………………………………………… 3
1-3 研究目的……………………………………………………………………………………… 7
1-4 研究架構……………………………………………………………………………………… 8
1-5 研究流程……………………………………………………………………………………… 10
1-6 名詞界定……………………………………………………………………………………… 10
1-7 操作定義……………………………………………………………………………………… 11
1-8 研究限制……………………………………………………………………………………… 12
第二章 生物多樣性保育與其問題……………………………………………………………… 13
2-1 生物多樣性與其意義…………………………………………………………………… 14
2-1.1 什麼是「生物多樣性」?……………………………………………………… 14
2-1.2 生物多樣性的分布……………………………………………………………… 18
2-2 保育生物多樣性的評估方法………………………………………………………….. 20
2-2.1 測量生物多樣性…………………………………………………………………. 20
2-2.2 生物多樣性熱點………………………………………………………………… 24
2-2.3 稀少、瀕臨滅絕與特有物種………………………………………………… 25
2-2.4 生態區………………………………………………………………………………. 27
2-2.5 生物區……………………………………………………………………………… 31
2-2.6 MVP MDA& PVA………………………………………………………………….. 35
2-2.7 缺口分析…………………………………………………………………………… 37
2-2.8 保護區選擇演算法……………………………………………………………… 39
2-2.9 島嶼生物地理學與景觀生態學在保護區議題的研究………………. 40
2-2.10 其它方法………………………………………………………………………… 44
2-2.11 廊道的串連……………………………………………………………………… 44
2-3 景觀生態學與保育………………………………………………………………………. 48
2-3.1 景觀生態學與保育的關係……………………………………………………. 48
2-3.2 從景觀層級進行保育…………………………………………………………… 51
2-4 生物多樣性與臺灣的問題……………………………………………………………… 56
2-4.1 臺灣目前的問題………………………………………………………………… 56
2-4.2 本研究對生物多樣性的觀點………………………………………………… 65
第三章 景觀生態學的觀點……………………………………………………………………… 68
3-1 景觀生態學的三大理論基礎…………………………………………………………. 68
3-1.1 一般系統理論…………………………………………………………………….. 69
3-1.2 生物控制理論…………………………………………………………………….. 73
3-1.3 生態系統理論…………………………………………………………………….. 76
3-2 探究「景觀」的意義……………………………………………………………………… 80
3-3 景觀結構…………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
3-4 景觀弁遄K………………………………………………………………………………….. 89
第四章 研究方法…………………………………………………………………………………….. 98
4-1 研究材料與工具…………………………………………………………………………… 98
4-2 研究方法……………………………………………………………………………………. 100
第五章 土地覆貌滌妧A變化…………………………………………………………………… 104
5-1 MODIS………………………………………………………………………………………… 104
5-1.1 地球觀測系統與MODIS……………………………………………………… 104
5-1.2 MODIS的特性…………………………………………………………………….. 106
5-1.3 MODIS影像處理過程…………………………………………………………… 111
5-2 土地覆貌滌妧A變化……………………………………………………………………. 116
5-2.1 MODIS衛星影像的重要性………………………………………………… 116
5-2.2 季節性的變化…………………………………………………………………….. 123
5-3 植被指數的動態變化……………………………………………………………………. 126
5-3.1 植被指數的意義…………………………………………………………………. 126
5-3.2 植被指數的的時間序列資料………………………………………………… 129
5-3.3 植被指數的季節性變化………………………………………………………. 134
5-3.4 植被指數在不同生態系統類型的特性…………………………………… 141
5-3.5四個季節生態系統類型的植被指數與藍光段的比較………………… 153
5-4 小結…………………………………………………………………………………………… 162
第六章 景觀結構分析……………………………………………………………………………… 164
6-1 反射率分析…………………………………………………………………………………. 164
6-2 臺灣的景觀…………………………………………………………………………………. 169
6-2.1 250m與40m空間解析度的比較…………………………………………… 173
6-2.2 1994年國土利用現況調查與第三次臺灣森林資源調查…………… 177
6-2 景觀的空間結構…………………………………………………………………………… 179
6-3 景觀的時間結構…………………………………………………………………………… 187
6-4 景觀的營養結構…………………………………………………………………………… 192
6-5 小結…………………………………………………………………………………………… 194
6-5.1 如何分析結構?………………………………………………………………… 194
6-5.2 分類、分區方法的抉擇………………………………………………………… 195
6-5.3 生態系統概念落實上的困難………………………………………………… 197
第七章 景觀弁鄐尷R……………………………………………………………………………… 198
7-1 景觀弁遄K………………………………………………………………………………… 198
7-2 NDVI分析……………………………………………………………………………………. 203
7-2.1植被指數與景觀弁鄋疑鰜Y………………………………………………… 203
7-2.2 植被指數的集水區單元分析………………………………………………… 204
7-2.3 植被指數的整體性分析……………………………………………………… 214
7-3 NPP分析……………………………………………………………………………………... 218
7-3.1 估算年NPP………………………………………………………………………... 218
7-3.2 NPP分析……………………………………………………………………………. 220
7-4 小結……………………………………………………………………………………………. 222
7-4.1 NDVI分析…………………………………………………………………………… 222
7-4.2 整體性分析的重要性…………………………………………………………… 222
第八章 景觀層級保育範圍的情境分析……………………………………………………… 223
8-1 從景觀層級進行情境分析……………………………………………………………… 223
8-2五種生態系統類型的核心區分析…………………………………………………….. 228
8-3 緩衝區分析…………………………………………………………………………………. 232
8-4 小結…………………………………………………………………………………………… 236
第九章 結論與建議………………………………………………………………………………… 244
9-1 結論
一、景觀、景觀結構與景觀弁遄K…………………………………………………… 244
二、土地覆酷黹吽K……………………………………………………………………… 245
三、景觀結構分析………………………………………………………………………… 246
四、景觀弁鄐尷R………………………………………………………………………… 247
五、景觀層級的生物多樣性保育範圍……………………………………………… 247
9-2 建議…………………………………………………………………………………………… 248
參考文獻………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 250
中文部分…………………………………………………………………………………………… 250
英文部分……………………………………………………………………………………………. 253
網際網路鍊結部分……………………………………………………………………………… 265
附錄一 平地地區與國有林班地土地利用重編碼…………………………………………… 266
附錄二 各種生態系統類型光譜比較……………………………………………………………. 270
附錄三 景觀生態學的發展歷程………………………………………………………………….. 279
附錄四 景觀的突現性質……………………………………………………………………………. 297
附錄五 MODIS資料格式說明……………………………………………………………………… 300

參考文獻
中文部分:
文軍與王介民(1997)一種由衛星遙感資料獲得的修正的土壤調整植被指數,氣候與環境研究,2(3):302-309。
王小璘(1994)坡地遊憩活動區位適宜性景觀生態評估方法之研究,戶外遊憩研究,7(1):49-79。
王如松、遲計與歐陽志雲主編(2001)中小城鎮可持續發展的生態整合方法,中國科學技術出版社,北京。
王禮嬙(1994)論中國自然保護區的科學管理,論自然保護區的建立和管理,王禮嬙和金鑒明主編,中國環境科學出版社,23-31。
王鑫(1986)遙測講義(四),台大地理系。
王鑫(1998)地景生態與地形分區,環境科學技術教育專刊,14:1-8。
王鑫(2000a)自然保護區系統,土地資源發展策略,國家政策研究基金會永續發展組,2-7。
王鑫(2000b)自然保護區系統的建立,2000生物多樣性保育展望大會論文集,楊平世、蔡惠卿編,行政院農業委員會,台北。
王鑫(2001)保護區之國家系統規劃,行政院農業委員會委託,國立臺灣大學地理環境資源學系辦理。
田慶久與閩祥軍(1998)植被指數研究進展,地球科學進展,13(4):327-333。
白梅玲、李培芬與張琪如(2000)福山試驗林之景觀分類,中華林學季刊,33(3):291-312。
江東、王乃斌、楊小喚與劉紅輝(2001)植被指數—地面溫度特徵空間的生態學內涵及其應用,地理科學進展,20(2):146-152。
李子鋒(1994)生物圈保護區的分區及其弁遄A論自然保護區的建立和管理,王禮嬙和金鑒明主編,中國環境科學出版社,151-157。
金鑒明(1994)建立和管理自然保護區的基本理論與實踐,論自然保護區的建立和管理,王禮嬙和金鑒明主編,中國環境科學出版社,1-22。
洪得娟(1993)景觀生態圖之應用與回顧,戶外遊憩研究,6(3):97-128。
張學聖與鄒克萬(1996)一個應用於土地分類之地理資訊系統與空間多變量整合分析模式,規劃學報,23:105-125。
陳昌篤與崔海亭(1994)生態系統保護與中國自然保護區區劃,論自然保護區的建立和管理,王禮嬙和金鑒明主編,中國環境科學出版社,53-64。
陳朝圳與湯惠媄(1996)以數值地形模型進行瑪家水庫集水區之生態土地分類,屏東技術學院學報,5(2):17-23。
陶雪松主編(2001)甘肅祁連山國家級自然保護區西水自然保護站森林資源規劃設計調查,甘肅省林業勘查設計研究院。
黃書禮(1999)生態土地使用規劃,詹氏書局,台北,190-254。
黃書禮(2001)生態系統理論與區域研究,區域研究及人文地理學門【研究方法及資料庫運用】研討會論文集,行政院國家科學委員會人文處主辦,中央研究院經濟研究所執行。
黃書禮與賴曉瑩(1999)台北盆地生態能量流動與土地使用之關係—(II)生態能量分區,都市與計畫,26(1):1-17。
黃敬峰與王秀珍(1999)天山北坡中東段天然草地光譜植被指數特徵,山地學報,17(2):119-124。
楊存建、張增祥、韓秀珍、趙曉麗與周全斌(2001)不同植被指數情況下的中國土壤侵蝕特徵分析,水土保持通報,21(1):26-29。
鄔建國(2000)景觀生態學:格局、過程、組織與尺度,科學出版社,北京。
臺灣省農林廳林務局(1995)第三次臺灣森林資源及土地利用調查,行政院農業委員會主辦,臺灣省政府農林廳林務局承辦,林務局森林企畫組執行。
趙羿與李月輝(2001)實用景觀生態學,科學出版社,北京。
劉一新 譯(2000)加拿大森林永續經營之準則與指標,林業叢刊第120號,行政院農業委員會林業試驗所出版,3。
劉玉洁等人編著(2001)MODIS遙感信息處理原理與算法,空間信息獲取與處理系列專注,科學出版社,北京。
劉東來(1994)自然保護區的建立與管理,論自然保護區的建立和管理,王禮嬙和金鑒明主編,中國環境科學出版社,65-96。
劉麗、劉青、黃萬崗、宋國強與谷小平(1997)貴州省植被指數遙感動態監測研究,貴州氣象,21(5):26-31。
劉麗、劉清與楊風(1998)用植被指數監測貴州乾旱的方法研究,貴州氣象,22(3):13-18。
歐曉昆與黃建國(1998)西雙版納生物圈保護區的生物多樣性保護和可持續發展,生物圈保護區:生物多樣性保護與可持續發展,姜漢僑與歐曉昆主編,3-11。
潘文富(1997)多變量分析在流域特性研究上之應用—以台灣東部流域為例,花蓮師院學報,7:395-426。
蔡曉明(2000)生態系統生態學,中國科學院研究生教學講座,科學出版社,北京。
蔡曉明(2000)生態系統生態學,中國科學院研究生教學講座,科學出版社,北京。
賴俊良(1994)台灣生態分區及環境敏感地劃設之研究,委託單位:行政院經濟建設委員會都市及住宅發展處,研究單位:丘膜u程顧問有限公司。
藍盛芳、欽佩與陸宏芳編著(2002)生態經濟系統能值分析,生態•環境與工程叢書,化學工業出版社環境科學與工程出版中心,北京。
魏宏森與曾國屏(1995)系統論,清華大學出版社,北京。

英文部分:
Armbruster, P. and Lande, R.(1993)A population viability analysis for African elephant (Loxodonta africana): How big should reserves be?, Conservation Biology, 7:602-610.
Bailey, R.G.(1996)Ecosystem Geography, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 23-26.
Bailey, R.G., Pfister, R.D., & Henderson, J.A.(1978)Nature of land and resource classification- A review, Journal of Forestry, 650-655.
Bastian, O.(2001)Landscape ecology – towards a unified discipline?, Landscape Ecology, 16:757-766.
Bertalanffy, L. Von(1968)General System Theory : Foundations, Development, Applications, G. Braziller, New York.
Birth, G. S., & McVey, G.(1968)Measuring the color of growing turf with a reflectance spectrophotometer, Agronomy Journal, 60:640-643.
Bissonette, J.A.(1997)Wildlife and Landscape Ecology:Effects of Pattern and Scale, New York:Springer, 410.
Boyce, M.S.(1992)Population viability analysis, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 23:481-506.
Boyce, M.S.(1992)Population viability analysis, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 23:481-506.
Brown, M.T. & Ulgiati, S.(1997)Emergy-based indices and ratios to evaluate sustainability: monitoring economies and technology toward environmentally sound innovation, Ecological Engineering, 9:51-69.
Burrough, P.A.(1986)Principles of Geographical Information Systems for Land Resource Assessment, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Carson, Rachel. 1987 [1962] Silent Spring. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, U.S.A. 【中譯本:溫繼榮,李文蓉譯《寂靜的春天》,大中國圖書公司,1992;李文照譯,寂靜的春天,晨星出版社,1996】
Caughley, G. & Gunn, A.(1996)Conservation Biology in Theory and Practice, Blackwell Science, Inc.
Chong, D.L. S., Mougin, E., & Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P.(1993)Relating the Global Vegetation Index to net primary productivity and actual evapotranspiration over Africa, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 14(1):517-546.
Clevers, J.G.P.W.(1988)The derivation of a simplified reflectance model for the estimation of leaf-area index, Remote sensing of environment, 25(1):53-69.
Clevers, J.G.P.W.(1989)The application of a weighted infrared – red vegetation index for estimating leaf area index by correcting soil moisture, Remote sensing of environment, 29:25-37.
Crippen, R.E.(1990)Calculating the vegetation index faster, Remote Sensing of Environment, 34:71-73.
Csuti, B., Polasky, S., Williams, P.H., Pressey, R.L., Camm, J.D., Kershaw, M., Diester, A.R., Downs, B., Hamilton, R., Huso, M. and Sahr, Kevin(1997)A comparison of reserve selection algorithms using data on terrestrial vertebrates in Oregon, Biological Conservation, 80:83-91.
Currie, D.J.(1991)Energy and large-scale patterns of animal- and plant-species richness, American Naturalist, 137:27-49.
Davey, A.G.(1998)National System Planning for Protected Areas, Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No.1, IUCN.
Davey, A.G.(1998)National System Planning for Protected Areas, World Commission on Protected Areas(WCPA) Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No.1, IUCN.
Davis, F.W. and Stoms, D.M.(1996)A spatial analytical hierarchy for GAP analysis, Gap Analysis:A Landscape Approach to Biodiversity Planning, Scott, J.M., H.T., Timothy, and F.W. Davis eds, American Society.
Demek, J. & Czechoslovakia, B.(1978)The landscape as a geosystem, Geoforum, 9:29-34.
Diamond, J.M.(1976)Island biogeography and conservation: Strategy and limitations, Science, 193:1027-1029.
Diamond, J.M.(1988)Factors controlling species diversity:Overview and synthesis, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens, 75:117-129.
Dobson, A.P., Rodríguez, J.P., and Roberts, W.M.(2001)Synoptic thinking: Integrating strategies for large-scale conservation, Ecological Applications, 11(4):1019-1026.
Doing, H.(1997)The landscape as an ecosystem, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 63, 221-225.
Dramstad, W. E., Olson, J.D., and Forman, R.T.T.(1996)Landscape Ecology Principles in Landscape Architecture and Land-Use Planning, Island Press.
Dubayah, R.(1992)Estimating net solar radiation using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Digital Elevation data, Water Resources Research, 28:2469-2484.
Duffy, D.C., Boggs, K., Hagenstein, R.H., Lipkin, R., and Michaelson, J.A.,(1999)Landscape assessment of the Degree of protection of Alaska’s terrestrial biodiversity, Conservation Biology, 13(6):1332-1343.
Elvidge, C.D. & Chen, Z.(1995)Comparison of broad-band and narrow-band red and near-infrared vegetation indices, Remote sensing of environment, 54:38-48.
Epstein, H.E., Lauenroth, W.K., & Burke, I.C.(1997)Productivity patterns of C3 and C4 functional types in the U.S. Great Plains, Ecology, 78(3):722-731.
Faith, D.P.(1992)Conservation evaluation and phylogenetic diversity, Biological Conservation, 61:1-10.
Farina, A.(1998)Principles and Methods in Landscape Ecology, Chapman & Hall, London.
Field, C. B., Randerson, J.T., & Malmstrom, C.M.(1995)Global net primary production: combining ecology and remote sensing, Remote Sensing of Environment, 51:74-88.
Forman, R.T.T. & Godron, M.(1981)Patches and structural components for a landscape ecology, Bioscience, 31(10):733-740.
Forman, R.T.T. and Godron, M.(1986)Landscape Ecology, Wiley, New York.
Forman, R.T.T.(1995)Land Mosaics: The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions , Cambridge University Press, New York.
Frankel, O.H. & Soulé, M.E.(1981)Conservation and Evolution, Cambrideg: Cambridge University Press.
Franklin, J.(2001)Geographic information science and ecological assessment, IN:Bourgeron, P.S. & Jensen, M.E.(eds), A guidebook for integrated ecological assessments, New York:Springer, 151-161.
Franklin, J.F.(1993)Preserving biodiversity:Species, ecosystems, or landscapes, Ecological Application, 3:202∼205.
Gaston, K.J.(1996)What is bioversity?, Biodiversity: A Biology of Numbers and Difference, Gaston, K.J. eds, Blackwell Science Ltd.
Georgiadis, G. and Campello, S.(1999)The corridor of the Serra do Mar, Parks, 9(3):25-34.
Goldstein, P.Z.(1999)Functional ecosystems and biodiversity buzzwords, Conservation Biology, 13(2):247-255.
Golley, F.B.(1991)The ecosystem concept: a search for order, Ecological Research, 6:129-138.
Golley, F.B.(1993)A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology: More Than the Sum of the Parts, Yale University Press, New Haven and London.
Golley, F.B.(2000)Ecosystems structure, Handbook of Ecosystem Theories and Management, Jorgensen, S.E. & Müller, F. eds, CRC Press LLC, 21-32.
Haberl, H., Erb, K.H., Krausmann, F., Loibl, W., Schulz, N., & Weisz, H. (2001)Changes in ecosystem processes induced by land use: Human appropriation of aboveground NPP and its influence on standing crop in Austria, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15(4):929-942.
Harrell, P.A.(1997)Evaluation of approaches to estimating aboveground biomas s in Southern pine forests using SIR-C data, Remote Sensing of Environment, 59:223-233.
Harris, L.D. & Atkins, K.(1991)Faunal movement corridors in Florida, Landscape Linkages and Biodiversity, Hudson, W.E. eds, Island Press, Washington, D.C., 117-138.
Hobbs, R(1997)Future landscapes and the future of landscape ecology, Landscape and Urban Planning, 37:1-9.
Hobbs, T.J.(1995)The use of NOAA-AVHRR NDVI data to assess herbage production in the arid rangelands of Central Australia, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 16:1289-1302.
Huete, A.R.(1988)A soil adjusted vegetation index(SAVI), Remote sensing of environment, 25:295-309.
Huete, A.R., Jackson, R.D., & Post, D.F.(1985)Spectral response of a plant canopy with different soil backgrounds, Remote Sensing of Environment, 17:37-53.
Hughes, J.B., Daily, G.C., and Ehrlich, P.R.(2000)Conservation of insect diversity: a habit approach, Conservation Biology, 14(6):1788-1797.
Hunter, M.L., Jr.(1996)Fundamentals of Conservation Biology, Blackwell Science, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
IUCN(2000)Protected Areas—Benefits beyond Boundaries, WCPA in Action.
Jordan, C.F.(1969)Derivation of leaf area index from quality of light on the forest floor, Ecology, 50:663-666.
Klijn, F. & Udo de Haes, H.A.(1994)A hierarchical approach to ecosystems and its implications for ecological land classification, Landscape Ecology, 9(2), 89-104.
Lachowski, H.M., & Johnson, V.C.(2001)Remote sensing applied to ecosystem management, IN:Bourgeron, P.S. & Jensen, M.E.(eds), A guidebook for integrated ecological assessments, New York:Springer, 135-150.
Lesica, P. and Allenddorf, F.W.(1992)Are small populations of plants worth preserving?, Conservation Biology, 6:135-139.
Lindenmayer, D.B., Margules, C.R., and Botkin, D.B.(2000)Indicators of Biodiversity for ecologically sustainable forest management, Conservation Biology, 14(4):941-950.
Liu, J., Chen, J.M., & Cihlar, J.(1997)A process -based boreal ecosystem productivity simulator using remote sensing inputs, Remote Sensing of Environment, 62:158-175.
Loehle, C, & LeBlanc, D.(1996)Model-based assessments of climate change effects on forests: a critical review, Ecological Modeling, 90:1-31.
Loveland, T.R., Reed, B.C., Brown, J.F., Ohlen, D.O., Zhu, Z., Yang, L., & Merchant, J.(2000)Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1-km AVHRR Data, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21(6-7):1303-1330.
Lovelock, J. E.(1987)Gaia-A New Look at Life on Earth, Oxford, UK. 【中譯本:金恆鑣譯,閩捸G大地之母,天下文化出版, 1994】
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Moon, C., and Ferrier, S.(2000)Incorporating habitat mapping into practical Koala conservation on private lands, Conservation Biology, 14(3):669-680.
Mackenzie, A., Ball, A.S. & Virdee, S.R.(1999)Instant notes in ecology, New York:Springer。
Major, D.J., Baret, F., and Guyot, G,.(1990)A ratio vegetation index adjusted for soil brightness, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 11:727-740.
Malcolm, L.H, Jr.(1996)Fundamentals of Conservation Biology, Blackwell Science, Inc.:Massachusetts.
Matsushita, B., & Tamura, M.(2002)Integrating remotely sensed data with an ecosystem model to estimate net primary productivity in East Asia, Remote Sensing of Environment, (81):58-66.
McGarigal, K., and McComb, W. C.(1995)Relationships between landscape structure and breeding birds in the Oregon Coast Range, Ecological Monographs, 65(3):235-260.
McHarg, I.L.(1969)Design with Nature, New York: American Museum of Natural History.
McNeely, J.R., Miller, K.R, Reid, W.V., Mittermeier, R.A., and Werner, T.B.(1990)Conserving the World’s Biological Diversity, IUCN, World Resources Institute, Conservation International, WWF-US, and the World Bank, Gland, Switzerland and Washington, D.C.。
Meffe, G.K. and& Carroll, C.R.(1994)Principles of Conservation Biology, Sinauer Associates, Inc., Massachusetts.
Melillo, J.M., Kicklighter, D.W., & McGuire, A.D.(1993)Global climate change and terrestrial net primary production, Nature, 363:234-240.
Miller, K.R.(1999)Bioregional planning and biodiversity conservation, Partnerships for protection, Stolton S. and Dudley N. eds, London: Earthscan, 41-49.
Mitchell, C.W.(1991)Terrain Evaluation:An Introductory handbook to the history, principles, and methods of ,
Monteith, J.L.(1972)Solar radiation and productivity in tropical ecosystems, Journal of Applied Ecology, 9:747-766.
Müller, F. & Windhorst, W.(2000)Ecosystems as functional entities, Handbook of Ecosystem Theories and Management, Jorgensen, S.E. & Müller, F. eds, CRC Press LLC, 33-49.
Murphy, D.D. and B.R., Noon(1992)Integrating scientific methods with habitat conservation planning: Reserve design for northern spotted owls, Ecological Applications, 2:3-17.
Naveh, Z. & Lieberman, A.S.(1994)Landscape Ecology: Theory and Application, 2nd, Springer-Verlag, Inc., New York.
Nielsen, S.N. & Müller, F.(2000)Emergent properties of ecosystems, Handbook of Ecosystem Theories and Management, Jorgensen, S.E. & Müller, F. eds, CRC Press LLC, 195-216.
North, P.R.J.(2002)Estimation of fAPAR, LAI, and vegetation fractional cover from ATSR-2 imagery, Remote sensing of environment, 80:114-121.
Noss, R.F. and Cooperrider, A.Y.(1994)Saving Nature’s Legacy: Protecting and Restoring Biodiversity, Island Press, Washington, D.C.
Noss, R.F.(1983)A regional landscape approach to maintain diversity, BioScience, 33(11):700-706.
Noy-Meir, I.(1973)Desert ecosystems: environment and producers, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4:23-51.
Odum, E.P.(1969)The strategy of ecosystem development, Science, 164:262-270.
Odum, E.P.(1989)Ecology and Our Endangered Life-Support Systems, Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Assoc. Inc.
Odum, E.P.(1997)Ecology: A Bridge Between Science and Society, Sinauer Associates, Inc., U.S.A.【中譯本:王瑞香譯(2000)生態學:科學與社會之間的橋樑,國立編譯館,台北。】
Odum, H.T.(1983)Systems Ecology: An Introduction, New York.
Paruelo, J.M., Epstein, H.E., & Lauenroth, W.K.(1997)ANPP estimates from NDVI for the Central grassland region of the United States, Ecology, 78(3):953-958.
Peres, C.A. and Terborgh, J.W.(1995)Amazonian nature reserves: An analysis of the defensibility status of existing conservation units and design criteria for the future, Conservation Biology, 9:34-46.
Pickett, S.T.A. & Cadenasso, M.L.(1995)Landscape ecology: spatial heterogeneity in ecological systems, Science, 269:331-334.
Pickett, S.T.A., Kolasa, J., and Jones, C.G.(1994)Ecological Understanding: The Nature of Theory and the Theory of Nature, Academic Press, New York.
Prentice, C., Cramer, W., Harrison, S., Leemans, R., Monserud, R., & Solomon, R.(1992)A global biome model based on plant physiology and dominance, soil properties and climate, Journal of Biogeography, 19:117-134.
Prescott, J., Gauthier, B. and Sodi, J.N.M.,(2000)Guide to Developing a Biodiversity Strategy from a Sustainable Development Perspective, IEPF, UNDP, UNEP.
Pressey, R.L. and Cowling, R.M.(2001)Reserve selection algorithms and the real world, Conservation Biology, 15(1):275-277.
Primack, R. and 季維智(2000)保護生物學基礎,中國林業出版社,北京。
Prince, S.D.(1991)Satellite remote sensing of primary production: comparison of results for Sahelian grasslands 1981-1988, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 12:1301-1311.
Qi, J., Chehbouni, A., Huete, A.R., Derr, Y.H., & Sorooshian, S.(1994)A modified soil adjusted vegetation index, Remote Sensing of Environment, 48(2):119-126.
Raich, J.W., Russell, A.E., & Vitousek, P.M.(1997)Primary productivity and ecosystem development along an elevation gradient on Mauna Loa, Hawaii, Ecology, 78(3):707-721.
Ray, T.W.(1994)A FAQ on Vegetation in Remote Sensing, http://atla.esrin.esa.it:8000/lib/rsvegfaq.txt, December 9th 2000.
Redford, K.H. and Richter, B.D.,(1999)Conservation of biodiversity in a world of use, Conservation Biology, 13(6):1246-1256.
Richardson, A.J., & Wiegand, C.L.(1977)Distinguishing vegetation from soil background information, Photogrammetric engineering and remote sensing, 43:1541-1552.
Risser, P.G.(1999)Examining relationships between ecosystem function and biodiversity: reply to Goldstein, Conservation Biodiversity, 13(2):438-439.
Risser, P.G.(1999)Landscape ecology: Does the science only need to change at the margin?, Landscape Ecological Analysis: Issues and Applications, Klopatek, J.M. & Gardner, R.H. eds, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 1-10.
Ruggiero, L.F., Hayard, G.D., and Squires, J.R.,(1994)Viability analysis in biological evacuations:Concepts of population viability analysis, biological population, and ecological scale, Conservation Biology, 8:364-368.
Running, S.W., Nemani, R., & Glassy, J.M.(1996)MOD17 PSN/NPP Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, NASA.
Running, S.W., Thornton, P.E., Nemani, R., & Glassy, J.M.(2000)Global terrestrial gross and net primary productivity from the earth observing system, In:Sala, O.E., Jackson, R., & Mooney, H.(eds), Methods in ecosystem science, New York:Springer, 44-57.
Sala, O.E., & Austin, A.T.(2000)Methods of estimating aboveground net primary productivity, In:Sala, O.E.(eds), Methods in ecosystem science, New York:Springer, 44-57.
Sala. O.E., Biondini, M.E., & Lauenoroth, W.K.(1988)Primary production of the central grasslands region of the United States, Ecology, 69:40-45.
Sample, V.A.(1994)Remote Sensing and GIS in Ecosystem Management, Island Press, Washington, D.C.
Sanderson, J. & Harris, L.D.(2000)Landscape Ecology: A Top-Down Approach, Lewis Publishers, New York.
Scheiner, S.M. and Rey-Benayas, J.M.(1994)Global patterns of plant diversity, Evolutionary Ecology, 8:331-347.
Schoen, D.(1997)Primary productivity: the link to global health, BioScience, 47(8):477-480.
Scurlock, J.M.O., Cramer, W., Olson, R.J., Parton, W.J., & Prince, S.D.(1999)Terrestrial NPP: toward a consistent data set for global model evaluation, Ecological Applications, 9(3):913-919.
Sellers, P.J., Tucker, C.J., Collatz, G.J., Los, S.O., Justice, C.O., Dazlich, D.A., & Randall, D.A.(1994)A global 1 by 1 NDVI data set for climate studies: 2. The generation of global fields of terrestrial biophysical parameters from the NDVI, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 15(17):3519-3545.
Shaffer, M.L.(1981)Minimum population sizes for species conservation, BioScience, 31:131-134.
Sherpa, M.N. and Norbu, U.P.(1999)Linking protected areas for ecosystem conservation: a case study from Bhutan, Parks, 9(3):35-45.
Simberloff, D.S. and Abele, L.G.(1982)Refuge design and island biogeographic theory, Effects of fragmentation, American Naturalist, 120:41-50.
Simberloff, D.S. and Abele, L.G.,(1976)Island biogeography theory and conservation practice, Science, 191:285-286.
Soulé, M.E.(1985)What is conservation biology?, BioScience, 35:727-734.
Swanson, F.J., Kratz, T.K., Caine, N., & Woodmansee, R.G.(1988)Landform effects on ecosystem patterns and processes, Bioscience, 38(2):92-98.
Townshend, J.R.G., Justice, C.O., Li, W., Gurney, C., & McManus, J.(1991)Global land cover classification by remote sensing: present capabilityies and future possibilities, Remote Sensing of Environment, 35:243-255.
Tucker, C.J, Vanpraet, C.L., & Sharman, M.J.(1985)Satellite remote sensing of total herbaceous biomass production in the Senegalese Sahel: 1980∼1984, Remote Sensing of Environment, 17:233-249.
Tucker, C.J.(1979)Red and photographic infrared linear combinations for monitoring vegetation, Remote Sensing of Environments, 8:127-150.
Tucker, C.J., & Sellers, P.J.(1986)Satellite remote sensing of primary production, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 7:1395-1416.
Turner, M. G.(1989)Landscape ecology: the effect of pattern on process, Annual Review of Ecology Systematics, 20:171-197.
Vester, F. (1994)Ecological cybernetics: A systems thinking. In: Urban Ecological Development: Research and Application, edited by R. Wang and Y. Lu, Beijing: China Environmental Science Press, p42-51.
Vink, A.P.A.(1983)Landscape Ecology and Land Use, Longman Inc., New York.
Virolainen, K.M., Nättinen, K., Suhonen, J., and Kuitunen, M.(2001)Selecting herb-rich forest networks to protect different measures of biodiversity, Ecological Applications, 11(2):411-420.
Walker, B.(1999)The ecosystem approach to conservation: reply to Goldstein, Conservation Biodiversity, 13(2):436-437.
Washington, D.C.。
Watson, J. and Wilkins, P.(1999)The Western Australian South Coast Macro corridor project – a bioregional strategy for nature conservation, Parks, 9(3):7-16.
Whitlock, C., & Bartlein, P.J.(1997)Vegetation and climate change in northwest America during the past 125kyr, Nature, 388:57∼60.
Whittaker, R.H.(1972)Evolution and measurement of species diversity, Taxon, 21:213-251.
Wiens, J.A.(1992)What is landscap ecology, really? Landscape Ecology, 7:149-150.
Wiens, J.A., Stenseth, N.C., Van Horne, B. and Ims, R.A.(1993)Ecological mechanisms and landscape ecology, Oikos, 66:369-380.
Willcox, L. and Aengst, P.(1999)Yellowstone to Yukon: romantic dream or realistic vision of the nature?, Parks, 9(3):17-24.
Wright, R.G., MacCracken, J.G. and Hall, J.(1994)An ecological evaluation of proposed new conservation areas in Idaho: Evaluating proposed Idaho national parks, Conservation Biology, 8:207-216.
Wylie, B.K., Harrington, J.A., & Prince, S.D.(1991)Satellite and ground-based pasture production in Niger: 1986∼1988, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 12(1):281-300.
Zuidam,R.A.(1979)Terrain analysis and classification using aerial photographs, ITC textbook of photo— interpretation, Ⅶ—Ch.6.ITC.
網際網路鍊結部分:
http://eos-am.gsfc.nasa.gov/
http://eosdatainfo.gsfc.nasa.gov/eosdata/terra/aster/channels.html
http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/eos_homepage/description.php
http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/
http://www.biodiv.org/
http://www.cola.wright.edu/greenline/Whyte/KMS_Journals_1through5/all_journal_page.htm
http://www.csrsr.ncu.edu.tw/newsite/index.html
http://www.forestry.umt.edu/ntsg/RemoteSensing/netprimary/
http://www.ntsg.umt.edu/
http://www.ntsg.umt.edu/remote_sensing/netprimary/
http://www.wcmc.org.uk/protected_areas/data/summstat.html
http://www.wcmc.org.uk/protected_areas/data/summstat.html



QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔