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研究生:鄧雅文
研究生(外文):Ya-Wen Teng
論文名稱:福山試驗林林窗對枯落物小型節肢動物之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Canopy Gaps on Litter Microarthropods in the FuShan Experimental Forest
指導教授:吳文哲吳文哲引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:45
中文關鍵詞:林窗枯落物小型節肢動物
外文關鍵詞:microarthropodslittercanopy gap
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摘要
本研究探討位於台灣東北部的福山闊葉林,森林林窗對枯落物小型節肢動物群聚的影響。選擇福山闊葉林中,上層優勢樹種:長葉木薑子 (Litsea acuminata) 及鋸葉長尾栲 (Castanopsis carlesii var. sessilis) 和下層優勢樹種:江某 (Schefflera octophylla),以其新鮮綠葉製作成枝葉包,置於林窗及密閉林內之枯落層,6個月之試驗期間每月於各樣點收取三樹種枝葉包共36包,以 Tullgren funnel 收集小型節肢動物。綠葉分解6個月後殘餘重量皆少於50%,三樹種分解率以江某最快,長葉木薑子最慢。216個枝葉包共採集到330個形態種,27,909隻小型節肢動物,其中以蜱蟎目豐度最高,佔總小型節肢動物之59.84%,其次為彈尾目 (25.88%)。豐富度則以蜱蟎目種數最多 (91種),鞘翅目 (30種) 和彈尾目 (25種) 次之。林窗對綠葉分解率及小型節肢動物總密度影響不顯著,但有14 種小型節肢動物僅發現於林窗林內,另外12種僅發現於林冠密閉林,此現象可幫助進一步探討林窗對特定種類或類群之小型節肢動物的影響力,並推測枯落物小型節肢動物群聚之動態。
Abstract
The effects of canopy gaps on litter microarthropods were examined by the litterbag method. Green foliage of three tree species, Litsea acuminata, Castanopsis carlesii var. sessilis, and Schefflera octophylla, made up 216 litterbags for six months study in two-canopy openness in the Fushan broadleaf forest in northeastern Taiwan. One litterbag of each tree species was collected from each plot at one-month intervals and microarthropods in the litterbags were extracted by the Tullgren funnel. After six months, the remaining leaf mass was less than 50%. The remaining mass of Schefflera octophylla was the lowest, and that of Litsea acuminata was the highest. A total of 27,909 microarthropod individuals were collected, and sorted to 330 morphospecies. Among them, Acari constituted 59.84%, followed by Collembola (25.88%). The species richness of Acari was highest (91), followed by Coleoptera (30) and Collembola (25). Analysis of variance indicated no significant effects of canopy gaps on the densities of litter microarthropods. There were only 14 taxa found in plots with canopy gaps and the other 12 taxa could be found only in canopy closed plots. This phenomenon may help to explore the effects of canopy gaps on special taxa or groups, and the dynamics of litter microarthropod community.
目錄
中文摘要
英文摘要
目錄------------------------------------------------------i
表次-----------------------------------------------------ii
圖次-----------------------------------------------------ii
壹、緒言--------------------------------------------------1
貳、往昔研究----------------------------------------------3
一、枯落層概述--------------------------------------------3
二、土壤節肢動物------------------------------------------4
三、影響小型節肢動物群聚之因子----------------------------5
四、擾動之影響--------------------------------------------7
參、材料與方法-------------------------------------------10
一、試驗地-----------------------------------------------10
二、方法-------------------------------------------------11
三、資料分析---------------------------------------------12
肆、結果-------------------------------------------------14
一、分解率-----------------------------------------------14
二、小型節肢動物群聚-------------------------------------15
伍、討論-------------------------------------------------24
陸、引用文獻---------------------------------------------28
柒、誌謝-------------------------------------------------33
捌、附錄-------------------------------------------------34

表次
表一、枝葉包內葉片分解率之變方分析表---------------------14
表二、前40種優勢物種之總個體數、個體數百分比及累計百分比-16
表三、小型節肢動物總密度之變方分析表---------------------17
表四、216個枝葉包內330物種之發現頻率百分比---------------19
表五、6種時間級數下330物種之發現頻率百分比---------------19
表六、3種樹種級數下330物種之發現頻率百分比---------------20
表七、12種樣點級數下330物種之發現頻率百分比--------------20
表八、不同林冠狀況下26物種之發現頻率---------------------21
表九、6級優勢度之物種優勢度指數及物種數------------------22
表十、小型節肢動物不同優勢度類群於不同林冠狀況內組成百分比----------------------------------------------------------23

圖次
圖一、三樹種之葉片分解率---------------------------------15
圖二、三樹種枝葉包內小型節肢動物總密度-------------------18
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