(18.204.227.34) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/19 06:49
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林俊耀
研究生(外文):Jiunn-Yaw Lin
論文名稱:綠豆象及四紋豆象之產卵行為及其種間競爭
論文名稱(外文):Oviposition Behavior and Its Impact on Interspecific Competition in Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and C. maculatus (F.)
指導教授:洪淑彬洪淑彬引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:145
中文關鍵詞:種間競爭四紋豆象產卵行為綠豆象
外文關鍵詞:oviposition behaviorCallosobruchus chinensisinterspecific competitionC. maculatus
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:1240
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
綠豆象及四紋豆象之產卵行為及其種間競爭

林俊耀
中文摘要

綠豆象 (Callosobruchus chinensis (L.)) 與四紋豆象 (C. maculatus (F.)) 皆屬於內食性昆蟲,且其寄主範圍相似。但前者發育期短,體形小;後者則是發育期長而體形較大,兩者在生活史上顯然有許多差異,其面臨不同環境之生活史策略亦可能不同。而往昔研究指出,種間競爭結果顯示綠豆象常被四紋豆象取代,本文旨在深入探討影響其種間競爭結果之機制。試驗首先探討兩種豆象單獨存在時,面臨食物資源充足及食物資源不足之寄主隔離情況下,其繁殖與存活之情形。結果發現,食物資源充足時,綠豆象之內在增殖率較四紋豆象為高,顯示綠豆象之族群增長較快。以不同隔離寄主時間處理兩種豆象時,顯示綠豆象在隔離寄主時間達8日時已無法有效調節能量的運用。此外,由權衡關係結果,亦可知綠豆象減少產卵僅能延長相對較少的壽命,因此隔離寄主對綠豆象的存活與繁殖影響顯著較大。當共存之兩種豆象面臨寄主缺乏情況時,四紋豆象在競爭上應較為有利。
本試驗亦在提供紅豆或綠豆為寄主條件下,以不同豆象雌蟲密度、比例條件探討兩種豆象種間之競爭作用,包含雌蟲產卵競爭 (如產卵數與產卵分布等) 及雌蟲對卵孵化之作用等,並以此架構種間競爭模式進行子代預測。最後,藉由兩種豆象實際種間競爭結果與預測值加以比較,以檢測種間競爭模式預測結果之可靠性,進而瞭解綠豆象與四紋豆象種間產卵競爭的效應及各蟲期競爭作用對族群增長之影響。結果顯示高密度雌蟲對四紋豆象產卵數之影響較綠豆象為小,且綠豆象產卵數較四紋豆象為少,四紋豆象之產卵競爭優勢應是其取代綠豆象的原因之一。結果亦顯示產卵競爭中綠豆象受種間競爭作用影響較大;四紋豆象則受種內影響較大。種間競爭模式預測之結果,四紋豆象之預測存活子代數仍較綠豆象為高,而實際競爭一世代後,四紋豆象之子代數亦顯著較綠豆象為多。此結果與種間競爭模式之預測結果相近,惟目前模式尚無法進行多世代之預測。由試驗之結果推論兩種豆象之種間競爭,四紋豆象經一世代後之子代數較綠豆象為多,且綠豆象羽化子代性比明顯偏向雄性,這些因子的作用是導致四紋豆象在兩種豆象種間競爭中佔優勢的原因。
本研究亦以不同密度之同種及不同種處女雌蟲及雄蟲處理來探討其對豆象雌蟲產卵之作用,以釐清雌、雄蟲干擾在競爭中扮演之角色。結果發現綠豆象與四紋豆象之雄蟲與處女雌蟲之干擾,可造成種內及種間雌蟲之產卵數及卵孵化率顯著降低,且於紅豆與綠豆兩種寄主上趨勢相似。對產卵數及卵孵化率之影響,在同種及不同種雌蟲或雄蟲間,其作用力並不相同,亦即可利用雌蟲產卵數與孵化幼蟲數評估與比較種內與種間豆象雄蟲或處女雌蟲之干擾作用,並可視為種間競爭之重要因子。在紅豆上,同種和不同種雄蟲之求偶及交尾干擾作用對壽命的影響相近,故似不影響種間競爭結果;但在綠豆上則是四紋豆象雄蟲之干擾作用對兩種雌蟲壽命的影響較重要。因此,在綠豆上雄蟲之干擾作用對種間競爭之影響較為重要。
Oviposition Behavior and Its Impact on Interspecific Competition in Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and C. maculatus (F.)

Jiunn-Yaw Lin

ABSTRACT

The bean weevils of Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus frequently infested seeds in the same stored house simultaneously. The interspecific competition between the two bean weevils in various competitive situations was studied. Firstly, the effects of host resources of azuki bean and mung bean upon their fecundity and longevity were examined. The results showed that the intrinsic rates of increase of C. chinensis on azuki bean and mung bean were greater than that of C. maculatus. After depriving hosts for 2, 4 or 8 days, females would reduce their fecundity and channel the energy to sustain their lives. However, the effect of deprivation on fecundity decrease of C. chinensis was more significantly than that of C. maculatus. Secondly, Competitions between the two bean weevils under various initial densities with the same ratio or various ratios under the same density of the two competitive species were examined. Thus, I may clarify the effect of inter- and intra-specific competition between the two beetles based on the fecundity and the offspring predicted by competitive model I proposed. Based on the fecundity and the predicted offspring in various initial densities, competitions at different stages of the life history of the two species were also evaluated to show the impact of oviposition competition in the two species. It is shown that the fecundities of C. maculatus are higher than that of C. chinensis in most of the various situations. The impact of intraspecific competition on oviposition is greater for C. maculatus than for C. chinensis. Thus, interspecific competition influences C. chinensis more significantly. The predicted number of offspring of C. maculatus calculated by the competitive models are also more than that of C. chinensis. The offspring left by C. maculatus from competition experiment are also more than that of C. chinensis and showed a concordance with the predictions of the competitive models. The sex ratio of offspring of C. chinensis was biased to male, whereas it is approximately 1:1 for C. maculatus. There for evidence supports the superiority of C. maculatus over the C. chinensis in the competition. Finally, the effects of conspecific and interspecific interference of male and virgin female on the fecundity and longevity of two bean weevils were studied. It was found that the fecundity and larvae hatched of these two species decreased with increasing conspecific or interspecific male and virgin female density. Impacts of intraspecific and interspecific interference of male and virgin female on fecundity or egg hatchability of the two bean weevils are significantly different. Therefore, these effects can be crucial factors to the competition of the two bean weevils.
目錄

英文摘要 …………………………………………………………………………… Ⅰ
中文摘要 …………………………………………………………………………… Ⅲ
目錄 …………………………………………………………………………… Ⅴ
表次 …………………………………………………………………………… Ⅸ
圖次 …………………………………………………………………………… Ⅹ
往昔研究 …………………………………………………………………………… 1
第一章 寄主資源對綠豆象及四紋豆象繁殖及存活之影響…………………… 4
壹 前言……………………………………………………………………… 4
貳 材料與方法……………………………………………………………… 6
一、供試蟲源…………………………………………………………… 6
二、試驗前處理………………………………………………………… 6
三、綠豆象與四紋豆象於紅豆及綠豆之生命表……………………… 7
四、隔離寄主對綠豆象及四紋豆象繁殖及存活之影響……………… 7
五 資料分析…………………………………………………………… 8
參 結果……………………………………………………………………… 9
一、綠豆象與四紋豆象於紅豆及綠豆之生命表……………………… 9
(一) 綠豆象與四紋豆象之發育及繁殖…………………………… 9
(二) 綠豆象與四紋豆象之族群介量……………………………… 9
二、隔離寄主對綠豆象及四紋豆象繁殖及存活之影響……………… 10
(一) 隔離寄主時間對豆象雌蟲繁殖之影響……………………… 10
(二) 隔離寄主時間對豆象雌蟲壽命之影響……………………… 12
(三) 隔離寄主時間對兩種豆象生活史策略之影響……………… 13
肆 討論……………………………………………………………………… 14
一、綠豆象與四紋豆象於紅豆及綠豆之生命表……………………… 14
二、隔離寄主對綠豆象及四紋豆象繁殖及存活之影響試驗………… 16
第二章 豆象種間競爭之模式分析……………………………………………… 31
壹 前言……………………………………………………………………… 31
貳 材料與方法……………………………………………………………… 33
一、豆象雌蟲種間產卵競爭效應試驗………………………………… 33
(一) 雌蟲日齡、寄主種類及隔離寄主對綠豆象及四紋豆象卵大小之影響試驗………………………………………………… 33
(二) 綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲密度、比例及寄主種類對其繁殖之影響試驗……………………………………………………… 33
1. 綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲密度及寄主種類對繁殖之影響試驗………………………………………………………… 33
2. 綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲比例及寄主種類對其繁殖之影響試驗……………………………………………………… 33
二、綠豆象與四紋豆象於不同寄主之種間競爭試驗…………………… 34
(一) 不同密度綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲於不同寄主之競爭試驗……………………………………………………………… 34
(二) 不同比例綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲於不同寄主競爭之試驗……………………………………………………………… 34
(三) 種間競爭模式分析…………………………………………… 35
參 結果……………………………………………………………………… 38
一、豆象雌蟲種間產卵競爭效應……………………………………… 38
(一) 寄主種類與雌蟲日齡對綠豆象及四紋豆象卵大小之影響… 38
1. 於紅豆上日齡效應對綠豆象及四紋豆象卵大小之影響… 38
2. 於綠豆上日齡效應對綠豆象及四紋豆象卵大小之影響… 38
(二) 隔離寄主對綠豆象與四紋豆象卵大小之影響……………… 39
(三) 綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲密度效應及寄主效應對其繁殖之影響……………………………………………………………… 40
1. 於紅豆中不同雌蟲密度對綠豆象及四紋豆象繁殖之影響 40
2. 於綠豆中不同雌蟲密度對綠豆象及四紋豆象繁殖之影響 41
(四) 綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲比例效應及寄主效應對其繁殖之影響……………………………………………………………… 41
1. 於紅豆中不同雌蟲比例對綠豆象及四紋豆象繁殖之影響………………………………………………………… 42
2. 於綠豆中不同雌蟲比例對綠豆象及四紋豆象繁殖之影響………………………………………………………… 43
二、綠豆象與四紋豆象於不同寄主之種間競爭試驗………………… 43
(一) 不同起始密度綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲於不同寄主上競爭之子代存活…………………………………………………… 44
1. 不同起始密度綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲於紅豆上競爭之子代存活………………………………………………… 44
2. 不同起始密度綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲於綠豆上競爭之子代存活………………………………………………… 44
(二) 不同起始比例綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲於不同寄主上競爭之子代存活…………………………………………………… 45
1. 不同起始比例綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲於紅豆上競爭之子代存活………………………………………………… 45
2. 不同起始比例綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲於綠豆上競爭之子代存活………………………………………………… 46
(三) 種間競爭模式………………………………………………… 47
肆 討論……………………………………………………………………… 49
一、豆象雌蟲種間產卵競爭效應……………………………………… 49
(一) 雌蟲日齡及寄主種類對綠豆象及四紋豆象卵大小之影響… 49
(二) 綠豆象及四紋豆象之產卵競爭……………………………… 50
二、綠豆象與四紋豆象於不同寄主之種間競爭試驗………………… 53
第三章 綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲受同種或不同種處女成蟲干擾對其繁殖與存活之影響………………………………………………………………… 84
壹 前言……………………………………………………………………… 84
貳 材料與方法……………………………………………………………… 87
一、兩種豆象雄蟲對綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲之干擾試驗…………… 87
(一) 不同密度之同種及不同種雄蟲對綠豆象雌蟲之干擾試驗……………………………………………………………… 87
(二) 不同密度之同種及不同種雄蟲對四紋豆象雌蟲之干擾試驗……………………………………………………………… 87
二、同種與不同種豆象雄蟲對綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲之求偶行為觀察試驗……………………………………………………………… 88
三、兩種豆象處女雌蟲對綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲之干擾試驗……… 88
(一) 不同密度之同種及不同種處女雌蟲對綠豆象雌蟲之干擾試驗……………………………………………………………… 88
(二) 不同密度之同種及不同種處女雌蟲對四紋豆象雌蟲之干擾試驗…………………………………………………………… 88
參 結果……………………………………………………………………… 90
一、兩種豆象雄蟲對綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲之干擾作用…………… 90
(一) 兩種豆象雄蟲於紅豆上對綠豆象雌蟲之干擾作用………… 90
(二) 兩種豆象雄蟲於紅豆上對四紋豆象雌蟲之干擾作用……… 91
(三) 兩種豆象雄蟲於綠豆上對綠豆象雌蟲之干擾作用………… 91
(四) 兩種豆象雄蟲於綠豆上對四紋豆象雌蟲之干擾作用……… 92
二、同種與不同種豆象雄蟲對綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲之求偶行為觀察…………………………………………………………………… 93
三、兩種豆象處女雌蟲對綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲之干擾作用……… 94
(一) 兩種豆象處女雌蟲於紅豆上對綠豆象雌蟲之干擾作用…… 94
(二) 兩種豆象處女雌蟲於紅豆上對四紋豆象雌蟲之干擾作用… 95
(三) 兩種豆象處女雌蟲於綠豆上對綠豆象雌蟲之干擾作用…… 95
(四) 兩種豆象處女雌蟲於綠豆上對四紋豆象雌蟲之干擾作用… 96
肆 討論……………………………………………………………………… 98
一、兩種豆象雄蟲對綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲之干擾作用…………… 98
二、同種與不同種豆象雄蟲對綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲之求偶行為觀察…………………………………………………………………… 100
三、兩種豆象處女雌蟲對綠豆象及四紋豆象雌蟲之干擾作用……… 102
結論 …………………………………………………………………………… 132
引用文獻 …………………………………………………………………………… 135
誌謝 …………………………………………………………………………… 145
引用文獻


王美惠。2002。從四紋豆象棄卵行為探討生活史策略。國立台灣大學昆蟲學研究所碩士論文。臺北。63頁。
李訓仁。1995。雌蟲密度與寄主資源對四紋豆象產卵策略之影響。國立台灣大學植物病蟲害學研究所碩士論文。臺北。66頁。
林慧中。1993。四紋豆象產卵行為對子代競爭之影響。國立台灣大學植物病蟲害學研究所碩士論文。臺北。58頁。
林俊耀、洪淑彬。2003。綠豆象及四紋豆象幼蟲種間競爭之密度效應與寄主效應。台灣昆蟲 23: 13-25。
胡燦。1989。加馬照射防治儲藏豆類之四紋豆象。國立台灣大學植物病蟲害學研究所博士論文。臺北。127頁。
胡為婷。1994。密度及寄主大小對四紋豆象產卵行為之影響。國立台灣大學植物病蟲害學研究所碩士論文。臺北。57頁。
曹書綺。2001。雄蟲對綠豆象繁殖策略的影響。國立台灣大學昆蟲學研究所碩士論文。臺北。38頁。
黃啟均。2001。幼蟲競爭與寄主隔離對四紋豆象生活史策略的影響。國立台灣大學昆蟲學研究所碩士論文。臺北。67頁。
楊肖欽。1998。四紋豆象與綠豆象處女蟲爬行處理對雌蟲產卵忌避及殺卵作用之影響。國立台灣大學植物病蟲害學研究所碩士論文。51頁。
劉美利。2002。Functional Approaches on the Sequences of Copulating Behavior in Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). 國立台灣大學昆蟲學研究所碩士論文。臺北。64頁。
蕭玉璇。1994。四紋豆象之產卵行為對其適存值之影響。國立台灣大學植物病蟲害學研究所碩士論文。57頁。
藍艷秋。1998。綠豆象生殖花費與產卵行為的適應。國立台灣大學昆蟲學研究所博士論文。臺北。110頁。
藍艷秋、洪淑彬。1999。綠豆象 (Callosobruchus chinensis (L.)) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) 雄蟲干擾對雌蟲產卵行為之影響。中華昆蟲 19: 249-256。
van den Assem, J. 1971. Some experiments on sex ratio and sex regulation in the pteromalid Lariophagus distinguendus. Netherlands J. Zool. 21: 373-402.
Avidov, Z., S. W. Applebaum, and M. J. Berlinger. 1965. Physiological aspects of host specificity in the Bruchidae.Ⅱ. ovipositional preference and behaviour of Callosobruchus chinensis L.. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 8: 96-106.
Begon, M., J. L. Harper, and C. R. Townsend. 1996. Life-history variation. pp. 526-566. In: Ecology: Individuals, Populations and Communities, 3rd ed. Blackwell Science Pub., London.
Bellows, T. S. 1982. Simulation models for laboratory populations of Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). J. Anim. Ecol. 51: 597-623.
Bellows, T. S. 1990. Population processes and dynamics of laboratory populations of Callosobruchus spp.. pp. 373-383. In: K. Fujii, A. M. R. Gatehouse, C. D. Johnson, R. Mitchell, and T. Yoshida, eds. Bruchids and Legumes: Economics, Ecology and Coevolution. Kluwer Academic Pub., Dordrecht.
Bellows, T. S., and M. P. Hassell. 1984. Models for interspecific competition in laboratory populations of Callosobruchus spp.. J. Anim. Ecol. 53: 831-848.
Birch, L. C. 1948. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of an insect population. J. Anim. Ecol. 17: 15-26.
Birch, L. C. 1953. Experimental background to the study of the distribution and abundance of insects: I. the influence of temperature, moisture and food on the innate capacity for increase of three grain beetles. Ecology 34: 698-711.
Birch, L. C. 1957. The meanings of competition. Am. Nat. 91: 5-18.
Charnov, E. L. 1979. The genetical evolution of patterns of sexuality: Darwinian fitness. Am. Nat. 113: 465-480.
Charnov, E. L., R. L. Los-den Hartogh, W. T. Jones, and J. van den Assem. 1981. Sex ratio evolution in a variable environment. Nature 289: 27-33.
Cope, J. M., and C. W. Fox. 2003. Oviposition decisions in the bean weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): effects of seed size on superparasitism. J. Stored Prod. Res. 39: 355-365.
Courtney, S. P., G. K. Chen, and A. Gardner. 1989. A general model for individual host selection. OIKOS 55: 55-65.
Credland, P. F. 1986. Effect of host availability on reproductive performance in Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 23: 91-98.
Credland, P. F., and A. W. Wright. 1989. Factors affecting female fecundity in the cowpea bean weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 25: 125-136.
Credland, P. F., and A. W. Wright. 1990 Oviposition deterrents of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Physiol. Entomol. 15: 285-298.
Credland, P. F., K. M. Dick, and A. W. Wright. 1986. Relationship between larval density, adult size and egg production in the cowpea bean weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Ecol. Entomol.11: 41-50.
Crombie, A. C. 1947. Interspecific competition. J Anim. Ecol. 16: 44-73.
Crudgington, S. H., and T. M. Siva-Jothy. 2000. Genital damage, kicking and early death. Nature 407: 855-856.
Czesak, M. E., and C. W. Fox. 2003. Evolutionary ecology of egg size and number in a bean weevil: genetic trade-off differs between environments. Evolution 57: 1121-1132.
Dick, K. M., and P. F. Credland. 1984. Egg production and development of three strains of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 20: 211-227.
Emlen, J. M. 1973. Ecology : an Evolutionary Approach. Addison Wesley Pub.
Fox, C. W. 1993a. The influence of maternal age and mating frequency on egg size and offspring preference in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Oecologia 96: 139-146.
Fox, C. W. 1993b. Multiple mating, lifetime fecundity and female mortality of the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Funct. Ecol. 7: 203-208.
Fox, C. W., and H. Dingle. 1994. Dietary mediation of maternal age effects on offspring performance in a bean weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Funct. Ecol. 8: 600-606.
Fox, C. W., and U. M. Savalli. 1998. Inheritance of environmental variation in body size: superparsitism of seeds affects progeny and grandprogeny body size via a nongenetic maternal effect. Evolution 52: 172-182.
Fox, C. W., M. S. Thakar, and T. A. Mousseau. 1997. Egg size plasticity in a bean weevil: an adaptive maternal effect. Am. Nat. 149: 149-163.
Fujii, K. 1965. Studies on interspecies competition between the azuki bean weevil and the southern cowpea weevil. Ⅰ. the reversal in competition result. Res. Popul. Ecol. 7: 43-51.
Fujii, K. 1967. Studies on interspecies competition between the azuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis and the southern cowpea weevil, C. maculatus. Ⅱ. competition under different environmental conditions. Res. Popul. Ecol. 9: 192-200.
Fujii, K. 1968. Studies on interspecies competition between the azuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis and the southern cowpea weevil, C. maculatus. Ⅲ. some characteristics of strains of two species. Res. Popul. Ecol. 10: 87-98.
Fujii, K. 1970. Studies on interspecies competition between the azuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis and the southern cowpea weevil, C. maculatus. Ⅴ. the role of adult behavior in competition. Res. Popul. Ecol. 12: 233-242.
Giga, D. P., and R. H. Smith. 1983. Comparative life history studies of four Callosobruchus species infesting cowpeas with special reference to Callosobruchus rhodesianus (Pic.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 19: 189-198.
Giga, D. P., and J. Canhao. 1997. Interspecies interference of oviposition behaviour in the Cowpea weevils Callosobruchus rhodesianus (Pic.) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Insect Sci. Applic. 17: 251-255.
Giga, D. P., and R. H. Smith. 1991. Interspecific competition in the bean weevils Callosobruchus maculatus and Callosobruchus rhodesianus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Appl. Ecol. 28: 918-929.
Gu, H., Q. Wang, and S. Dorg. 2003. Superparasitism in Cotesia glomerata: response of hosts and consequences for parasitoids. Ecol. Entomol. 28: 422-431.
Hemptinne, J. L., A. F. G. Dixon, and G. Lobnay. 1996. Searching behaviour and mating recognition by males of the two-spot ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata. Ecol. Entomol. 21: 165-170.
Hemptinne, J. L., G. Lobnay, and A. F. G. Dixon. 1998. Mate recognition in the two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata: role of chemical and behavioral cues. J. Insect Physiol. 44: 1163-1171.
Horng, S. B. 1994. What is the oviposition decision rule by the bean weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus? Zool. Stud. 33: 278-286.
Iwasa, Y., Y. Suzuki, and H. Matsuda. 1984. Theory of oviposition strategy of parasitoids Ⅰ. effect of mortality and limited egg number. Theor. Popul. Biol. 26: 205-227.
Krebs, J. R., and N. B. Davies. 1993. Sexual confict and sexual selection. pp. 175-207. In: An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology. 3rd edition. Blackwell Scientific Pub., Oxford.
Lloyd, M. 1967. Mean crowding. J. Anim. Ecol. 36: 1-29.
Merrell, D. J. 1981. Ecological genetics. Univ. of Minnesota Press. Pub., London.
Messina, F. J., and R. Mitchell. 1989. Intraspecific variation in the egg-spacing behavior of the bean weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. J. Insect Behav. 2: 727-742.
Messina, F. J., and A. F. Slade. 1999. Expression of a life-history trade-off in a bean weevil depends on environmental context. Physiol. Entomol. 24: 358-363.
Messina, F. J., J. L. Kemp, and J. A. Dickinson. 1992. Plasticity in the egg-spacing behavior of a bean weevil: effects of host deprivation and seed patchiness (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Insect Behav. 5: 609-621.
Mitchell, R. 1975. The evolution of oviposition tactics in the bean weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Ecology 56: 696-702.
Mitchell, R. 1990. Behavioral ecology of Callosobruchus maculatus. pp. 317-330. In: K. Fujii, A. M. R. Gatehouse, C. D. Johnson, R. Mitchell, and T. Yoshida, eds. Bruchids and Legumes: Economics, Ecology and Coevolution. Kluwer Academic Pub., Dordrecht.
Navasero, R., and G. Elzen. 1992. Influence of maternal age and host deprivation on egg production and parasitization by Microplitis croceipes (Hym.: Braconidae). Entomophaga 37: 37-44.
Odendaal, F. J., and M. D. Rausher. 1990. Egg load influences search intensity, host selectivity and clutch size in Battus Philenor butterflies. J. Insect Behav. 3: 183-193.
Park, T. 1954. Experimental studies of interspecific competition. Ⅱ. temperature, humidity and competition in two species of Tribolium. Physiol. Zool. 27: 177-238.
Park, T. 1962. Beetles, competition, and populations. Science 138:1369-1375.
Sadeghi, H., and F. Gilbert. 2000. The effect of egg load and host deprivation on oviposition behaviour in aphidophagous hoverflies. Ecol. Entomol. 25: 101-108.
SAS Institute. 1990. SAS/STAT User’s Guide. Version 6, 4th edition. SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA.
SAS Institute. 1996. SAS/STAT software: change and enhancements. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
Shimada, M. 1990. Comparison of the density-dependent population process between laboratory and wild strains of Callosobruchus chinensis (L.). pp. 361-371. In: K. Fujii, A. M. R. Gatehouse, C. D. Johnson, R. Mitchell, and T. Yoshida, eds. Bruchids and Legumes: Economics, Ecology and Coevolution. Kluwer Academic Pub., Dordrecht.
Smith, R. H. 1990. Adaptations of Callosobruchus species to competition. pp. 351-360. In: K. Fujii, A. M. R. Gatehouse, C. D. Johnson, R. Mitchell, and T. Yoshida, eds. Bruchids and Legumes: Economics, Ecology and Coevolution. Kluwer Academic Pub., Dordrecht.
Southagate, B. J. 1979. Biology of the Bruchidae. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 24: 449-473.
Smith, R. H., and C. M. Lessells. 1985. Oviposition, ovicide and larval competition in granivorous insects. pp. 423-448. In: R. M. Sibly, and R. H. Smith, eds. Behavioural Ecology: Ecological Consequences of Adaptive behaviour. Blackwell Scientific Pub., Oxford.
Tatar, M., and J. R. Carey. 1995. Nutrition mediates reproductive trade-offs with age-specific mortality in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Ecology 76: 2066-2073.
Thanthianga, C., and R. Mitchell. 1987. Vibrations mediate prudent resource exploitation by competing larvae of the bruchid bean weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 44: 15-21.
Thanthianga, C., and R. Mitchell. 1990. The fecundity and oviposition behavior of a South Indian strain of Callosobruchus maculatus. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 57: 133-142.
Terkanian, B. 1993. Effect of host deprivation on egg quality, egg load, and oviposition in a solitary parasitoid, Chetogena edwardsii (Diptera: Tachinidae). J. Insect Behav. 6: 699-713.
Toquenaga, Y. 1990. The mechanisms of contest and scramble competition in bruchid species. pp. 341-349. In: K. Fujii, A. M. R. Gatehouse, C. D. Johnson, R. Mitchell, and T. Yoshida, eds. Bruchids and Legumes: Economics, Ecology and Coevolution. Kluwer Academic Pub., Dordrecht.
Umeya, K. 1966. Studies on the comparative ecology of bean weevil. Ⅰ. on the egg distribution and oviposition behaviours of three species of bean weevil infesting adzuki bean. Res. Bull. Plant Prot. Serv. Japan 3: 1-11.
Utida, S. 1943. Studies on experimental population of azuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.). Ⅷ. statistical analysis of the frequency distribution of the emerging weevils on bean. Mem. Coll. Agric. Kyoto Imp. Univ. 54: 1-22.
Utida, S. 1953. Interspecific competition between two specific of bean weevil. Ecology 34: 301-307.
Vogt, E. A., and J. R. Nechols. 1993. The influence of host deprivation and host source on the reproductive biology and longevity of the squash bug egg parasitoid Gryon pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Scelionidae). Biol. Control 3: 148-154 .
Wasserman, S. S. 1985. Oviposition behavior and its distribution in the southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 78: 89-92.
Wilson, K. 1988. Egg laying decisions by the bean weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. Ecol. Entomol. 13: 107-118.
Wilson, K., and L. Hill. 1989. Factors affecting egg maturation in the bean weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. Physiol. Entomol. 14: 115-126.
Yamamoto, I. 1990. Chemical ecology of Bruchids. pp. 53-62. In: K. Fujii, M. R. Gatehouse, C. D. Johnson, R. Mitchell, and T. Yoshida, eds. Bruchids and Legumes: Economics, Ecology and Coevolution. Kluwer Academic Pub., Dordrecht.
Yanagi, S. I., and T. Miyatake. 2003. Cost of mating and egg production in female Callosobruchus chinensis. J. Insect Physiol. 49: 823-827.
Yoshida, T. 1966. Studies on the interspecific competition between bean weevils. Mem. Fac. Lib. Arts Edn. Miyazaki Univ. 20: 59-98.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top