(3.236.100.86) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/06 14:29
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:王柏堯
研究生(外文):Po-Yao Wang
論文名稱:網室番茄上銀葉粉蝨防治決定的取樣技術
論文名稱(外文):Sampling techniques for IPM decision-making of the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) on net-house tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
指導教授:陳秋男
指導教授(外文):Chiou-Nan Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:設施番茄銀葉粉蝨空間分布最適樣本逐次取樣
外文關鍵詞:Sequential samplingBemisia argentifoliiSilverleaf whiteflySpatial distributionOptimal sample sizeNet-house tomato
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:276
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本試驗為發展設施栽培番茄園中銀葉粉蝨防治決定的取樣技術。藉著取樣技術,判斷田間害蟲為害嚴重性,以決定防治措施的施行與否,而達到蟲害管理的目的。首先調查銀葉粉蝨於番茄上的基本統計資料,以判斷其田間的分布類型,再決定取樣計算公式。調查工作係於2002年4月至6月、10月至2003年1月;與2003年3月至6月、11月至2004年2月於新竹縣關西鎮亞太農場進行。每週定期逢機取樣,以葉片為單位,直接翻葉記數銀葉粉蝨成蟲數、若蟲數。在番茄植株的垂直分布上,銀葉粉蝨無論成蟲與若蟲均於整株可見,但活動範圍以植株的中、下層為主(約佔80%)。以卡方符合度檢驗成蟲、若蟲於番茄園的空間分布型式,發現調查的47筆資料中,成蟲有38筆符合負二項分布,若蟲有26筆符合負二項分布,將成蟲與若蟲資料合併計算則有27筆符合負二項分布。調查所得數據,符合Taylor’s Power Law (S2 = amb),其中成蟲的a值為2.054、b值為1.288;而若蟲的a值為3.729、b值為1.481,顯示不論銀葉粉蝨成蟲、若蟲均為聚集分布。依Iwao的*m-m迴歸方程式(m* = α+βm),得到成蟲的α值為1.130、β值為1.223;若蟲的α值為7.457、β值為1.303,表示銀葉粉蝨族群組成單位為小聚落,小聚落在番茄園中呈聚集分布。而成蟲與若蟲合併資料之a值為3.853、b值為1.492;α值為7.802、β值為1.358。上述統計介量可計算出族群密度估計的最適取樣數。再則根據空間分布型式,使用負二項分布的Common K並設防治基準m1為32(隻)、m2為64(隻);Type I error及Type II error均為0.1時,可得到成蟲與若蟲合併之逐次取樣的USV(upper stop value)方程式為44.423× n + 91.4;LSV(lower stop value)方程式為44.423 × n-91.4。若使用Iwao的mean crowding-mean regression發展的逐次取樣方程估算成蟲與若蟲合併資料,可得USV為 ;LSV為 (q為檢視樣本數)。若不記數蟲數,改以記算受害葉片比率發展的Binomial sequential sampling,在定義每葉≧1隻銀葉粉蝨蟲體為受害葉片時,可得到Binomial sequential sampling之方程式為LSV為 、USV為 ( n為檢視樣本數)。
用逐次取樣模型佐以適當的防治基準,可做為推廣計畫中判斷田間害蟲危害等級的快速判定方法,以決定適當防治措施施行時機。
I conducted studies to develop sampling plans for the decision-making of control action of silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring ) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivated under net-house in the Asia Pacific Farm, Guansi Township, Hsinchu County. Using sequential sampling plans can help agriculturist to judge the damage of target pest and to decide whether control is needed. Before developing sequential sampling plans, I need to examine the distribution model of target pest in the grove. Random leaf samplings were taken weekly for four crop seasons, namely, from April to June, 2002, October, 2002 to January, 2003, March to June, 2003,and November, 2003 to February, 2004. In terms of vertical distribution, adults and nymphs were abundant on leaves at the middle and the bottom stratum of tomato (80%) than on leaves at the top stratum. Using X2-test to examine the fitness of the negative binomial distribution to the frequency data collected from the field, I concluded that negative binomial distribution fitted well to most of data sets. Thirty-three out of 47 data sets of adults and 26 out of 47 data sets of nymphs were in compliance with negative binomial distribution. Because both adults and nymphs infested tomato, data of adults and nymphs were pooled together to develop the sequential sampling plan. Aggregation patterns measured by Taylor’s Power Law revealed that adults were aggregative (b = 1.288) as well as nymphs (b = 1.481). The same conclusion was reached by using Iwao’s mean crowding-mean regression as the parameters of adults (?= 1.130, β = 1.223) and of nymphs(?= 7.457, β = 1.303) indicated. Using the parameters from Taylor’s Power Law (a, b) and from Iwao’s mean crowding-mean regression(? β) and set the precision level (D) at 0.1 and 0.2), optimal sample size was estimated for specified population density. Using Common K (Kc) derived from the pooled data sets fitting the negative binomial distribution and assume that class limits m1 = 32 (no./per leaf ) , m2 = 64 (no./per leaf) and Type I error?= 0.1, Type II errorβ = 0.1. I developed the sequential sampling plan as USV = 44.423 n + 91.4 and LSV = 44.423n - 91.4. Using Iwao’s mean crowding-mean regression for the pooled data and assumed the class limits m0 = 64 (no./per leaf), I developed the sequential sampling plan as
USV: ,and LSV: (q:number of leaves examined). Based upon the ratio of infested leaves, a binomial sequential sampling plan was developed such that LSV: , USV: ( n:number of leaves examined and a leaf with ≧ 1 silverleaf whitefly body is defined as the infested leaf).
However, the sequential sampling plans as developed above help judge the damage level of target pest remain further evaluation in practice.
目錄

中文摘要
Abstract
目錄……………………………………………………………………………………i
圖次……………………………………………………………………………………ii
表次…………………………………………………………………………………...iii
壹、 緒言………………………………………………………………………………1
貳、 往昔研究…………………………………………………………………………4
一、 銀葉粉蝨……………………………………………………………………4
二、 番茄…………………………………………………………………………7
三、 田間取樣技術………………………………………………………………9
參、 材料與方法……………………………………………………………………..12
一、 取樣試驗田………………………………………………………………..12
二、 取樣方法…………………………………………………………………..12
三、 統計分析方法……………………………………………………………..13
四、 逐次決定取樣法………………………………………………………… .17
肆、 結果……………………………………………………………………………..25
伍、 討論與結論……………………………………………………………………..30
陸、 引用文獻………………………………………………………………………..38
柒、 圖………………………………………………………………………………..44
捌、 表………………………………………………………………………………..59
玖、 附錄……………………………………………………………………………..72
壹拾、誌謝…………………………………………………………………………..80
Barinaga, M. 1993. Is devastating whitefly invader really a new species. Science 259: 30.
Bartlett, P. W. 1992. Experience of polyphagous alien pests of protected crops in Greeat Britain. Bulletin OEPP 22: 337-346.
Bedford, I., and P. Markham. 1993. The rise of the superbug. Grower Aprin: 11-13.
Bedford, I. D., R. W. Briddon, and P. G. Markham. 1992. Bemisia tabaci- Biotype characterization and the threat of this whitefly species to agriculture.
Brighton Crop Protection Conference- Pests and Diseases p.1235-1240.
Bedford, I. D., R. W. Briddon, P. G. Markham, J. K. Brown, and R. C. Rosell.
1993. A new species of Bemisia or biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), as a future pests of European agriculture. Plant Health and the European Single Market, BCPC Monograph 54: 381-386.
Bellow, T. S., T. M. Perring, R. J. Gill, and D. H. Headrick. 1994. Description of a species of Bemisia (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 87: 195-206.
Bethke, J. A., T. D. Paine, and G. S. Nuessly. 1991. Comparative biology, morphometrics, and development of two population of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae) on cotton and poinsettia. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 84: 407-411.
Binns, M. R. and J. P. Nyrop. 1992. Sampling insect population for the purpose of IPM decision making. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 37: 427-453.
Birch, L. C. 1948. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of an insect population. J. Anim. Ecol. 17: 15-26.
Bliss, C.I., and R. A.Fisher. 1953. Fitting the negative binomial distribution to biological data and note on the efficient fitting of the negative binomial. Biometrics 9: 176-200
Brown, J. K., D. R. Frohlich, and R. C. Posell. 1995. The sweetpotato or silverleaf whiteflies: Biotype of Bemisia tabaci or a species complex. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 40: 511-534.
Byrne, D. N., and T. S. Bellows. 1991. Whitefly biology. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 36: 431-439.
Byrne, D. N., and W. B. Miller. 1990. Carbohydrate and amino acid composition of phloem sap and honeydew produced by Bemisia tabaci. J. Insect Physiol. 36: 433-439.
Chen, W. S., and W. I. Chung. 1997. Biology and control of silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellow & Perring). Technical Bulletin of Tainan District Agricultural Improvement Station 86-1 ( No. 67).
Chen, C. N. 1983. Sampling for population estimation of major cruciferous insect pests. pp. 31-36 In: Y. F. Hsiao, ed. Proceeedings of the symposium on the insect control of vegetables in Taiwan. Dept. of Agriculture and Forestry, Taiwan Provincial Government, Taiwan R.O.C., (in Chinese).
Chen, C. N. 1986. Spatial pattern and transformation of field counts of Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae on cauliflower. Plant Prot. Bull. (Taiwan) 28: 323-333.
Cock, M. J. W. 1986. Bemisia tabaci : a literature survey on the cotton whitefly with an annotated bibliography. C.A.B. International Ins. Biol. Control Ascot, UK. 121 pp.
Culotta, E. 1991. Superbug attacks California crop. Science 254: 1445.
De Barro, P. J. 1995. Bemisia tabaci biotype B: a review of its biology, distribution and control. CSIRO Division of Entomology Technical Paper. pp. 36-57.
Gerling, D., A. R. Horowitz, and J. Barmgaertner. 1986. Autecology of Bemisia tabaci. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 17: 5-19.
Gill, R. J. 1992. A review of sweetpotato whitefly in southern California. Pan-Pacific Entomol. 68: 144-152.
Hung, C. H. 1995. Current situation and future prospect in production of solanaceous fruit vegetables in Taiwan. Symp. on Improvement of Vegetable Industry in Taiwan 1995 pp. 39-110. (in Chinese)
Iwao, S. 1972. Application of the m*-m method to the analysis of spatial patterns by changing the quadrate size. Res. Popul. Ecol.14: 97-128.
Iwao, S., and E. Kuno. 1968. Use of the regression of mean crowding on mean density for estimating sample size and the transformation of data for the analysis of variance. Res. Popul. Ecol. 10: 210-214.
Karandinos, M. G. 1976. Optimun sample size and comments on some published formulae. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 22: 417-421.
Kuo, H. Y. 2002. The situation of production and market of tomato. Tomato ---The Race Specifics and Cultural Techniques. Seed Improvement and Propagation Station, Taichung. pp. 78.(in Chinese)
Lambert , A. L., R. M. McPherson, and G. A. Herzog. 1997. Field evaluation of fourteen soybean genotypes for resistance to whitefly (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae) infestations. J. Econ. Entomol. 90: 658-662.
Legaspi, J. C., B. G. Legaspi, JR., R.L. Meagher,JR., and M. A. Ciomperlik. 1996. Evolution of Serangium parcesetosum (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae) as a biological control agent of the silverleaf whitefly (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 25: 1421-1427.
Legg , D. E., and B. M. Chen. 2000. Toward fair comparisions of binomial sequential sampling plans. Amer. Entomol. 46: 250-260.
Lin, F. C. 1994. Occurrence of whiteflies on ornamental plants and their control. Flower Pathology and Pest of Taiwan Symposium: 177-184. (in Chinese)
Lin, F. C., T. H. Su, and C. L. Wang. 1997. Effect of temperature on development and reproduction of silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellow & Perring) and its population fluctuation on poinsettia. Chinese J. Entomol. 17: 66-79. (in Chinese)
Lloyd, M. 1967. Mean crowding. J. Anim. Ecol. 36: 1-30.
Morris, R. F. 1960. Sampling insect populatons. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 5: 243-264.
Naranjo, S. E., and H. M. Flint. 1995. Spatial distribution of adult Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae) in cotton and development and validation of fixed-precision sampling plans for estimating population density. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 24: 261-270.
Naranjo, S. E., H. M. Flint, and T. J. Henneberry. 1995. Comparative analysis of selected sampling methods for adult Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae) in cotton. J. Econ. Entomol. 88: 1667-1678.
Naranjo, S. E., H. M. Flint, and T. J. Henneberry. 1996. Binomial sampling plans for estimating and classifying populaton density of adult Bemisia tabaci in cotton. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 80: 343-353.
Naranjo, S. E., J. W. Diehl, and P. C. Ellsworth. 1997. Sampling whiteflies in cotton: Validation and analysis of enumerative and binomial plans. Environ. Entomol. 26: 777-788.
Ohno, S. 1992. Whiteflies problem in the United States of America. Japan Pesticide Information 60: 19-20.
Pedigo, L. P., and J. W. van Schaik. 1984. Time-sequential sampling: a new use of the sequential probability ratio test for pest management decisions. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amer. : 33-36.
Perring, T. M., A. D. Cooper, and D. J. Kazmer. 1992. Identification of poinsettia strain of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae) on broccoli by electrophoresis. J. Econ. Entomol. 85: 1278-1284.
Perring, T. M., A. D. Cooper, D. J. Kazmer, C. Shields, and J. Shields. 1991. New strain of sweetpotato whitefly invades California vegetable. Calif. Agric. 45(6): 10-12.
Perring, T. M., A. D. Cooper, R. J. Rodriguez, C. A. Farrar, and T. S. Bellows. 1993. Identification of a whitefly species by genomic and behavioral studies. Science 259: 74-77.
Schuster, D. J. 1998. Intraplant distribution of immature life stages of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae) on tomato. Environ. Entomol. 27: 1-9.
Southwood, T. R. E. 1978. Ecological Methods with Particular Reference to the Study of Insect Populations. Chapman & Hall, London 524 pp.
Strickland, A. H. 1961. Sampling crop pests and their hosts. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 6: 201-222.
Taylor, L. R. 1961. Aggregation, variance and the mean. Nature 189: 732-734.
Taylor, L. R., I. P. Woiwod, and J. N. Perry. 1978. The density dependence of spatial behaviour and the rarity of randomness. J. Anim. Ecol. 47: 383-406.
Tonhasca, A. Jr., J. C. Palumbo, and D. N. Byrne. 1994. Binomial sampling plans for estimating Bemisia tabaci populations in cantaloupes. Res. Popul. Ecol. 36: 181-186.
Tonhasca, A. Jr., J. C. Palumbo, and D. N. Byrne. 1994. Distribution patterns of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae) in cantaloupe fields in Arizona. Environ. Entomol. 23: 949-954.
Tsai, J. H., and K. H. Wang. 1996. Development and reproduction of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera : Aleyrodidae) on five host plants. Environ. Entomol. 25: 810-816.
Wald, A. 1945. Sequential tests of statistical hypotheses. Ann. Math. Statis. 16:117-186.
Wang, K. T., G. W. Kaung, and U. P. Wang. 1981. Physiology of Tomato. Shanhai Tech. Publisher, Shanhai. 363 pp. (in Chinese)
Waters, W. E. 1955. Sequential sampling in forest insect surveys. Forest Sci. 1: 68-79.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔