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研究生:莊祿萌
研究生(外文):Lu-Meng Chuang
論文名稱:CdSe柱狀結構二維光子晶體的製作及光學性質
論文名稱(外文):Fabrication and Optical Properties of 2D Photonic Crystals of CdSe Pillars
指導教授:陳永芳陳永芳引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:物理研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:物理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:英文
論文頁數:57
中文關鍵詞:光子晶體
外文關鍵詞:photonic crystals
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本論文主要研究CdSe柱的製作及其光學性質。我們利用電子束微影術(Electron Beam Lithography)及電鍍方法(Electrochemistry Deposition)長成次微米等級的CdSe柱狀結構,並利用拉曼光譜(Raman spectra)及光激發螢光光譜儀(photoluminescence)量測CdSe柱的光學性質。
拉曼光譜(Raman spectra)量測後顯示,利用電子束微影術及電鍍方法製作的CdSe柱具有wurtzite晶體結構(wurtzite crystal structure)。有趣的是在研究光學性質時,當CdSe柱的直徑和間距在特定結構的時候,此柱狀結構擁有特別強烈的發光特性。此發光特性我們可以用光子晶體的原理來解釋。光子晶體會產生光子能帶,CdSe的激發光子就無法在橫向的平面傳播,只會往上的方向發光。所以垂直橫向平面的發光強度。
因此電子束微影術及電鍍方法的結合,我們可以很輕易的製作出各種尺寸及形狀的微細結構。加上光子晶體優異發光特性,我們證明此技術可以製作高效率的發光元件。
This thesis concerns with the fabrication and optical properties of two-dimensional photonic crystals of CdSe pillars. The combination of electron beam lithography and electrochemistry deposition methods has been employed to fabricate sub-micrometer scale CdSe pillars. The optical properties of CdSe pillars are characterized by micro- photoluminescence (µ-PL).
The formation of the wurtzite crystal structure of CdSe has been confirmed by Raman spectra. Quite interestingly, in the study on optical properties, we found that the intensity of micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) can be greatly enhanced at a particular structure of photonic crystals. This peculiar phenomenon can be explained quite well in terms of the effects of photonic crystals. PCs can provide a photonic band gap in the lateral dimensions so that the emission of CdSe pillars can not propagate in the lateral plane and can only propagate upward with respect to the photonic crystal. Thus, the detected PL intensity normal to the lateral plane is enhanced.
The combination of electron beam lithography and electrochemical deposition technique provides a simple and low cost method to grow sub-micro meter scales structures. We therefore demonstrate an alternative method to fabricate high efficiency of luminescent optical device.
Contents

1. Introduction
1-1 Photonic Crystals……..….……………………………………………………..1
1-2 Electron Beam (E-Beam) Lithography……..….…………………...…………..3
1-3 CdSe Pillars……..….…………………………………………………………...3
References……..….………………………………….……………………………..5

2. Theoretical and Experimental Background
2-1 Photonic crystals……..….………………………..…………………………….6
2-1.1 Electromagnetism in Mixed Dielectric Media……..….……………………...6
2-1.2 Scaling Properties of the Maxwell Equations……………………………..10
2-1.3 Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals……..….………………………...….12
2-2 Photolithography……..….……………………………….…………………….14
2-3 Electron-beam (E-beam) lithography……..….………………………………...19
2-3.1 Introduction……..….………………………………….……………..…....19
2-3.2 Electron-beam Resist……..….……………………………...……………..23
2-3.3 Polymethal methalcrylate (PMMA) ……..…..…………………………....25
2-3.4 Proximity Effect……..….……………………………………………….....26
2-4 Electrochemistry deposition2-4.1 Electrolytic dissociation……..….….……….26
2-4.1 Electrolytic dissociation……..….…….…………………………………….27
2-4.2 Electrochemistry deposition……..….………….…………………………...27
2-4.3 Reference Electrodes……..….……………………………………………...30
2-5 Photoluminescence (PL) ……..….………………………………………….…...32
2-5.1 Photoluminescence Spectroscopy……..….……….………………….……..32
2-5.2 Photoluminescence emission……..….……….……………….…………….33
2-6 Raman Spectroscopes……..….…………………………….……………………36
2-6.1 Anti-Stokes and Stokes lines……..….………………………...……………37
2-6.2 Raman intensity and geometry……..….…………….………………………39
References.…..….……………………………………………………..…………….40

3. Fabrication and Optical Properties of Two Dimension Photonic Crystals of CdSe Pillars
3-1 Introduction……..….………………………………………………….………..43
3-2 Designment of 2-D Photonic Crystals of CdSe Pillars……..….…………….....44
3-3 Sample Preparation……..….……………………………….…………………..45
3-4 Results and Discussion……..….………………………………...……………..52
3-4.1 Raman Scattering in CdSe Pillars……..….………………………………..52
3-4.2 Enhancement of μ-PL Intensity of 2D Photonic Crystals of CdSe Pillars…..….……………………………………………..…………...…..53
3-5 Summary……..….…………………………………………….………………..55
References……..….……………………………………………….………………..56

4. Conclusion……..….…………………………………………………..57
References:
1.J. Joannopoulos, R. Meade, and J. Winn, Photonic Crystals, Princeton
A.University, Princeton, (1995)
2.Rai-Choudhury, P, Handbook of Microlithography and Microfabrication,
A.Spie Optical Engineering Press, (1994)
3.Thompson, Larry; Wilson, Grant; Bowden, Murrae, Introduction to
A.Microlithography, Second Edition, (1994)
4.Campbell, Stephen., The Science and engineering of Microelectronics
A.Fabrication, Oxford University Press, (1996)
5.Brus, L. E. Appl. Phys. A 53, 465 (1991)
6.L.-S. Li, J. Hu, W. Yang, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nano Lett. 1, 349 (2001)
7.E. Chow, S.Y. Lin, S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Vawter, W. Zubrzyckl, H. Hou, and A. Alleman, Nature. 407, 983 (2000)
8.P. V. Braun, P. Wiltzius, Nature (London). 402, 603 (1999)
9.A. J. Yin, J. Li, W. Jian, A. J. Bennett, and J. M. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 7 (2001)
10.A. Ji, and P. C. Searson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 23 (2002)
11.R. Solanki, J. Huo, J. L. Freeouf, and B. Miner , Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 20 (2002)
12.K. Sebald, P. Michler, T. Passow, D. Hommel, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 16 (2002)
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