(3.236.231.61) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/15 22:36
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:蕭巧怡
研究生(外文):Chiao-Yi Hsiao
論文名稱:俄羅斯聯邦與車臣問題
論文名稱(外文):Russian Federaton and Chechen Conflicts
指導教授:高朗高朗引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lan Kau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:政治學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:181
中文關鍵詞:車臣戰爭俄羅斯聯邦民族分離主義民族整合聯邦主義
外文關鍵詞:FederalismNational IntegartionNational SecessionismRussian FederationChechen War
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:8
  • 點閱點閱:385
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
本文研究的主軸是從民族整合的角度,來探討俄羅斯聯邦和車臣問題,並以聯邦主義作為提供政治途徑,解決車臣衝突的價值思維。
對於俄羅斯與車臣長期衝突,筆者試圖以歷史途徑分析,進一步歸納兩造間的互動困境。從沙皇俄羅斯帝國的民族同化政策、隔離政策,一直到蘇聯時期的高壓統治。由於政策上的失誤,導致俄羅斯民族與車臣民族並未如預期,走上民族融合之路,反而深化彼此的差異。蘇聯時期的聯盟制度與俄羅斯加盟共和國內的聯邦架構,給了車臣「民族-領土」結合的發展環境,使得「我族意識」不斷強化,形成分離意識。在1991年蘇聯崩潰之際,由於中央統治力的衰弱,成為車臣訴求獨立的契機。
俄羅斯聯邦在蘇聯解體後,透過法律、政治、經濟等手段,希望弭平境內分離勢力。但是俄羅斯和車臣卻發生了1994年到1996年、1999年到2003年的兩次車臣戰爭,儼然是俄羅斯國家整合上,最大的一個傷口,究竟是什麼原因,使得車臣個案在俄羅斯聯邦一百多個民族當中如此的獨一無二?俄羅斯與車臣互動之困境在於,克里姆林宮的爭權、車臣菁英的派系鬥爭導致車臣無法如正常國家般運作,再加上俄羅斯的主權思維與車臣民族獨立訴求的反向拉扯,使得兩造之間難獲政治解決的共識、互信基礎。俄羅斯採取顛覆杜達耶夫政權、發動全面性戰爭、扶植親俄政權及簽訂聯邦條約等民族整合手段,在車臣個案上顯然不太成央C而聯邦主義作為兼顧自治(self-rule)與共治(shared-rule)政治意識型態,是否能取代「主權不可分割」與「民族自決」兩個意識型態,成為進一步思考俄羅斯、車臣關係的新思維?本文希望藉由探討俄羅斯與車臣1991年至2003年的歷史互動,來進一步思考上述幾項問題。


第一章 緒論 1

第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 車臣研究理論與文獻分析 3
第三節 概念界定與研究架構 16
第四節 研究範圍、方法與研究限制 23

第二章 俄羅斯的聯邦體制與民族矛盾 26

第一節 帝俄時期的民族政策 26
第二節 蘇聯時期的民族政策 33
第三節 俄羅斯的聯邦體制 42
第四節 小結 47

第三章 車臣民族分離主義 49

第一節 車臣民族特性與集體意識之凝聚 49
第二節 蘇聯對車臣民族的統治 58
第三節 車臣分離意識與民族問題 64
第四節 小結 67

第四章 葉爾親時代的車臣政策 70

第一節 車臣分離運動 70
第二節 第一次車臣戰爭爆發之原因與過程 85
第三節 第一次車臣戰爭之影響 110
第四節 小結 119

第五章 普丁時代的車臣政策 122

第一節 第二次車臣戰爭 122
第二節 聯邦制度改革與車臣問題 134
第三節 俄羅斯的新車臣政策 137
第四節 小結 146

第六章 聯邦主義與車臣民族整合之探討 150

第一節 聯邦主義與分離主義 150
第二節 聯邦主義與俄羅斯聯邦 155
第三節 從聯邦主義看俄羅斯聯邦與車臣問題 161

第七章 結論 168

參考文獻 172
















圖目次

圖一: 統一路徑圖 19

圖二: 研究架構圖 22

圖三: 俄羅斯與車臣歷史關係圖 149

圖四: 聯邦架構與運作過程圖 160


表目次:

表一:不同年齡調查對象對於「是否應強制車臣留在俄羅斯問題」之調查 122

表二:對「誰在使車臣陷於戰爭的事件中有罪」的調查 123




丁宗裕
1995,<從車臣看葉爾欽對各自治州之統治>,《俄情雜誌》,第四
卷,第一期,頁19-32。
王定士
1999,<車臣戰爭之研究:車臣戰爭決策中的克里姆林宮政治因素
>,《俄語學報》,第二期,頁232-257。
王承宗
2000,<車臣戰爭與車臣問題>,《問題與研究》,第三十九卷,第
六期,頁1-31。
王兆徽
2002,<歐亞主義的幻影>,《俄羅斯學報》,第二期,頁181-
190。
戈巴契夫 著 譚天 譯
2001,《俄羅斯的教訓》(Gorbachev: on My Country and the
World),台北:貓頭鷹出版社
李玉珍
1995,<『車臣事件』」與俄羅斯聯邦的民族問題>,《問題與研
究》,第三十四卷,第八期,頁35-46。
李建德
1997,《論「車臣事件」始末及其影響---衝突理論之驗證》,台
北:淡江大學俄羅斯研究所碩士論文。
李照德
1999,《俄羅斯與車臣的統獨爭論---車臣民族分離意識的形成與
實踐》,台北:淡江大學俄羅斯研究所碩士論文。
吳玉山
1997,《抗衡或扈從---兩岸關係新詮釋:從前蘇聯看台灣與大陸
間的關係》,台北:正中書局。
1998,《共產世界的變遷---四個共產政權的比較》,台北:東大
圖書。
2000,《俄羅斯轉型1992-1999一個政治經濟學的分析》,台北:
五南出版社。
吳婓竣
1992,《蘇後時期烏克蘭與俄羅斯關係---以烏克蘭國族認同的轉
變為中心》,台北:政治大學俄羅斯研究所碩士論文。
吳美慧
1997,《俄羅斯民族主義與對外政策一九九一至一九九八》,台
北:政治大學俄羅斯研究所碩士論文。
宋錦海
1998,<俄羅斯的中央-地方關係----地方選舉帶來的變化>,《歐
洲》,第四期,北京:歐洲雜誌社。
何萍
1995,<車臣與俄羅斯的抗爭史回顧>,《歷史月刊》,第八十五
卷,頁97-101。
徐桂香
1999,《俄羅斯聯邦體制及民族分離的挑戰---以韃靼、車臣與喀
爾瑪克為例》,台北:蒙藏委員會。
威耤B雪s、潘德禮
2001,《普京:能使俄羅斯振興嗎?》,江蘇:江蘇人民出版社。
盛理
1996,<俄羅斯與車臣衝突關係之探討>,《俄情雜誌》,第五卷,
第五期,頁1-4。
張珍瑜
1993,<民族主義中分離運動之解析---以蘇聯、南斯拉夫以及捷克
斯洛伐克為例>,《政治學刊》,第二期,頁28-41。
陳慶輝
2001,《俄羅斯中央與地方關係,1992-1999》,台北:政大俄羅
斯研究所碩士論文。
陷f雯
2001,《�堮�地區石油資源之爭(1992-2000)》,台北:政大俄
羅斯研究所。
黃炳鈞
2001,《俄羅斯的巨變》,北京:經濟日報出版社。
曾靖芳
2003,《民族分離運動的比較研究 :以俄羅斯聯邦之韃靼共和國
與車臣共和
國為例》,台北:政治大學俄羅斯研究所碩士論文。
葉玟宗
1999,《俄羅斯反對北約東擴之研究》,台北:政大俄羅斯研究所
碩士。
葉書宗、張盛發
1991,《錘子和鐮刀---蘇維埃文化和蘇維埃人》,台北:淑馨出
版社。
趙竹成
1999,<俄羅斯聯邦體制的不對稱性與「韃靼斯坦」模式>,《國立
政治大學學報》,第七十九卷第二期,頁1-30。
2002,《俄羅斯聯邦體制的憲政基礎及其衝突》,台北:韋伯出版
社。
劉向文、宋雅芳
2000,《俄羅斯聯邦憲政制度》,法律出版社。
羅伯特•康奎斯特 主編 劉靖兆、劉振前 等譯
1993,《最後的帝國---民族問題與蘇聯前途》,上海:華東師範
大學。
Gurr, Ted Robert, and Harff, Babara,
1999,《國際政治中的族群衝突》(Ethnic Conflict in World
Politics),台北: 韋伯文化。
Kaldor, Mary
2002,《新戰爭---全球性的組織化暴力》(New & Old Wars---
Organiz Violence in a Global Era),台北:聯經出版社。
Lehning, Percy B. 雀陬噩汁?
2001,《分離主義的理論》 (Theories of Secession),台北:韋
伯出版社。
Leroy-Beaulieu, Anatole, 劉增泉 譯
1881,《帝俄和俄羅斯》,(L’Empire Des Tsars Et Les
Russes),台北:國立編譯館。
Мигранян, Андраник
2001,《俄羅斯現代化之路---為何如此曲折》,北京:新華出版
社。
Жириновский, В. В.
1994,《俄羅斯的命運》,北京:新華出版社。

二、外文書目與期刊

Alexseev, Kikhail A. ed. 1999, Center-periphery Conflict in
Post-Soviet Russia---A Federation Imperiled, Bloomsbrug:
Macmillan Press LTD.
Baev, Pavel, 1997, Russia’s Policies in the Caucasus, The
Royal Institute of International Affairs---Russia and
Eurasia Programme, London: Chameleon Press Ltd.
Bartkus, Viva Ona 1999, The Dynamic of Secession,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blank, Stephen 2003, “The Militarization of Central Asia:
A Violent Theater of Operation”, Washington: The World &
I, 18(2):259
Birch, Anthony H., 1989, Nationalism & National
Integration, London: Unwin Hyman Ltd.
Bowker, Mike and Ross, Camern ed., 2000, Russia: After the
Cold War, England: Pearson Education Limite.
Buchheit, Lee C., 1978, Secession: The Legitimacy of Self-
Determination, Michigan: BookCrafters, Inc.
Buchanan, Allen., 1991, The Morality of Political Divorce
from Fort Sumter to Lithuania and Quebec, Boulder:
Westview Press.
Burgess, Michael ed., 1986, Federalism and federation in
Western Europe, London : Biddles Ltd.
Burgess, Michael and Alain-G. Gagnon, ed., 1993,
Comparative Federalism and Federation: Competing
Traditions and Future Direction, Toronto: University of
Toronto Press.
Caryl, Christian, 2002, “Under the Jackboot; Russia’s
‘Forgotten war’ in Chechnya Turns Uglier –and Looks
Increasingly Likely to Spread Beyond its Borders”,
Newsweek [Atlantic Edition], (Oct 14):28-34.
Charles van der Leeuw, 1998, Storm over the Caucasus---in
the Wake of Independence, New York: ST. Martin’s Press
Ltd.
Cohen, Ariel, 2002, “Russia, Islam, and the War on
Terrorism”, Demokratizatsiya 10(4):556-567.
Dima, Nicholas., 1995, “Russia, the Caucasus, and
Chechenya”, The Journal of Social, political, and
Economic Studies, 20(2):151.
Dunlop, John B., 1998, Russia Confronts Chechnya: Roots of
a Separatist Conflict, Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
Elazar, Daniel J., 1987, Exploring Federalism, Tuscaloosa:
The University of Alabama Press.
Evangelista, Matthew., 2002, The Chechen Wars: Will Russia
Go the Way of the Soviet Union? Washington: Brookings
Institution Press.
Fowkes, Ben edited, 1998, Russia and Chechnia: The
Permanent Crisis Essays on Russo-Chechen Relations, New
York: St. Martin’s Press.
Friedrich, Carl J., 1968, Trends of Federalism in Theory
and Practice, NY: Frederich A. Praeger, Inc.
Gall, Carlotta & Thomas de Waal, 1997, Chechnya: A Small
Victorious War, London: Pan Original.
Gellner, Ernest, 1983, Nations and Nationalism, Itheaca:
Cornell University Press.
Gelman, Vladimir., 2002, “ Russia’s Elites in Search of
Consensus: What Kind of Consolidation?”, Washington:
Demokratizatsiya, 10(3):343-361
Gleason, Gregory., 1990, Federalism and Nationalism--- The
struggle for Republican Rights in the USSR, Boulder:
Westview Press.
Gorenburg, Dmitry P., 2003, Minority Ethnic Mobilization in
the Russian federation, Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
Hechter, Michael., 1975, Internal Colonialism, Berkeley:
University of California Press.
______________, 2000, Containing Nationalism, New York:
Oxford University Press Inc.
Hewitt, George., 1998, “Allah’s Mountains”, Central
Asian Survey 17(4):722-728.
Ichkeria, 1996, “Agreement between the Russian Federation
and the Government of Chechen Republic”, Unrepresented
Nations and Peoples Organization. (Aug, 31st)
Lapidus Gail W. ed. and Victor Zaslavsky with Philip
Yoldman, 1992, From Union to Commonwealth: Nationalism and
separatism in Soviet Republics, Cambridge: Cambridge Press.
Leitzinger, Antero., 2000, “History of Provocations”
(Translation by Kullberg, Anssi ), www.europenetworks.net,
Helsinki: Eurasian Culture Institute.
Lieven, Anatol., 1998, “Russia and Chchnya, Chechnya---
Tombstone of Russian Power,
New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
____________, 2002, “ Moscow Takes The Gloves off; Russia
Dreams of Washington’s Classifying Chechen Rebels as An
Enemy in the War on Terror”, Newsweek (Atlantic Edition,
pp. 20-28.
Lloyd, John., 2003, “After He End of Empire”, New
Statesman 16(742).
__________, 2003, “Is Russia Closing in on Itself
Again?”, New Statesman 16(741): 25-26.
Lo, Bobo., 2002, “No Compromise”, The World Today, 58
(12):13-14.
________, 2003, “Vlad the Mighty?”, The World Today, 59
(3):13-15.
Khasbulatov, Ruslan, Sakwa Richard ed., 1993, The Struggle
for Russia, London: Routledge Ltd.
King, Charles. 2003, “Crisis in the Caucsus”, Foreign
Affairs, 82(2):134-138.
Kohan, John, Zarakhovich, Yuri., 1995, “Awaiting His
Nation’s Call”, Time, 145(8):26-28.
Kux, Stephan., 1990, Soviet Federalism: A Comparative
Perspective, New York: the Institute for East-west
Security Studies.
Menon, Rajan and Grabam, Fuller E. 2000, “Russia’s
Ruinous Chechen War”, Foreign Affair, pp.33-45.
Maltsev, Yuri N. “Chechnya Destroyed”,1999,
www.amina.com/article/.
Morison, John, 2000, Ethnic and National Issues in Russian
and East European History, New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Moore, Margaret ed., 1998, National Self-Determination and
Secession, New York: Oxford University Press Inc.
Mortimer, Edward ed., 1999, People, Nation & State--- The
meaning of Ethnicity & Nationalism, New York: I.B. Tauris
& Co Ltd.
geopolitics”, The Journal of Social, political, and
Economic Studies, 28(1):77-93.
Nivat, Anne, 2001, Chienne de Guerre: A Woman Reporter
Behind the Lines of the War in Chechnya, New York: Public
Affairs.
Premdas, Ralph R. 1990, Secessionist Movements in
Comparative Perspective, London: Biddles Ltd.
Rajan Menon, Yuri E. Fyodorov, and Ghia Nodia eds, 1999,
Russia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia: The 21st Century
Security Environment, Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Rupesinghe, Kumar, King, Peter and Vorkunova, Olga ed.
1992, Ethnicity and Conflict in a Post-Communist World,
NY: ST. Martin’s Press Inc.
Sharlet, Robert. 2003, “Constitutional law and politics in
Russia: Surviving the first decade”, Demogratizatsiya 11
(1): 122-128.
Smith, Sebastian 1998, Allah’s Mountains--- Politics and
War in the Russian Caucasus, New York: I.B. Tauris & Co
Ltd.
Suzman, Mark 1999, Ethnic Nationalism and State Power, New
York: ST. Martin’s Press, Inc.
Watson, Adam, 1997, Еhe Limits of Independence---
Relations between states in the modern world, London:
Routledge.
Viscidi, Lisa, 2003, “Europe: The vote of the dead souls;
Chechnya’s referendum”, The Economist, 366(8317):47-48.
Zelkina, Anna, 2000, In Quest for God and Freedom: Sufi
responses to the Russian advance in the North Caucasus,
New York: New York University Press.

三、新聞資料

“A Sham Referendum in Chechnya”, 2003, The New York
Times. (Jan, 14th)
“After Chechnya”, 1995, The Economist, 334(7897):44-45.
Aliye, Timur., 2003, ”Chechen Human Rights Defenders
Request President Putin to Postpone Referendum”,
www.watchdog.cz. (Mar, 4th)
“ Almost 50% of Russians Favor Referendum in Chechnya”,
2003, Pravda.RU. (Jan, 28th)
Asuyev, Said., 1998, “Chechen Ex-fighters Meet in Grozny
over Raduyev Problem”, Ita-Tass News Wire. (Feb, 21th)
Antonenko, Oksana, 1999, “Russia, NATO and European
Security after Kosovo”, Survival, 41(4):124-145.
Baibakov, Sergei, 1998, “Situation Around Chechnya Worse
than in 1994- Berezovsky”, Itar-Tass News Wire. (Jul,
30th)
Banchik, Nadezhda. 2001, “Chechen International Terrorism
or Bluff on Blood?” Glasnostmedia. (May, 11th)
Caryl, Christian, 1998, “War Against the People”, Wall
Street Journal. (Jun, 09th)
“Chechens Deny that A Russian Victory is Near”, NPR:
Morning Edition. (Jan, 24th)
“Chechens Offered Autonomy under New Constitution”, 2003,
Oman Observer Headline. (Mar, 18th)
“Chechnya: Russia’s Pain and Shame”, 2000, An Phoblacht/
Republican News. (Mar, 02nd)
“Cheeky Chechen, Bungling Russians”, 1995, The Economist,
335(7920):46.
Council of Europe, 2003, “PACE & Conflict in the Chechen
Republic – Adopted Texts”, Watchdog. (Jan, 29th)
Council of Europe, 2003, “PACE & Conflict in the Chechen
Republic- Verbatim Report of Debate”, Watchdog. (Jan,
30th)
“Dangerous Relations”, 2001, The Economist. (Oct, 18th )
Evans, Geoffrey, 1998, “The Evolution of Left and Right in
Post-Soviet Russia”, Europe-Asia Studies, 50(6):1023-
1043.
“Europe: Losing Control?”, 1998, The Economist, 348
(8077):45-47.
Felgenhauer, Pavel, 2001, “Paying for War in Chechnya”,
Moscow Times. (Apr, 26th)
“Getting Russia Right”, 1995, The Economist, 334(7897),
14-15.
Hoffman, David. 1999, “War Reports Limited on Russian TV
Chechnya Battlefield Information Censored”, Washington
Post Foreign Service. (Oct, 10th)
Isaye, 2003 ,“Collection of Signatures Petitioning Russian
President Putin Launched in Chechnya”, Watchdog. (Feb,
17th)
Isayev, Sayed, 1998, “Chechen Leader Invited to World
Islamic Conference”, Itar-Tass News Wire. (Aug, 04th)
Isayev, Said, 1998, “Chechnya Welcomes Primakov’s
Nomination for Russian Premier”, Itar-Tass News Wire.
(Sep, 11th)
__________, 1998, “State Commission Checks Activities of
Chechen President”, Itar-Tass News Wire. (Oct, 01st)
“Itar-Tass List of Attempted Murders of Chechen
Officials”, 1998, Itar-Tass News Wire. (Oct, 25th)
Ivanov, Ivan, 1998, “No Anti-Russian Moods in Dagestan:
official Adds Information, Quotations”, Itar-Tass News Wire. (Sep, 24th)
Ismailov, Imran. 2003, “A Chechen Anomaly’, Prague
Watchdog. (Mar, 14th)
“Jaw- jaw at Last”, 2001,The Economist.( Nov, 22nd)
“Key Western Diplomat Endorses Referendum”, 2003,
Chechnya Weekly 4(5):3-4.
Koehn, Jodi, 1999, “The North Caucasus Conflict and Its
Implications for Russia”, www.amina.com (Nov, 18th)
Kramer, Mark, 1999, “The West Should Stand Up for
Chechnya”, LA Times. (Dec, 09th)
“Lord Judd’s Resignation: English Spin, Russian Duck”,
2003, Chechnya Weekly 4(3):2-5.
“Losers, Both”, 2002, The Economist.
Maksakov, Ilya, 2003, “Chechenya: Political Solution or
Confrontation?”, Referendum on a new Chechen
Constitution Causes Contradictory Reactions,
www.watchdog.cz.(Mar, 08th)
“Mayhem in Moscow”, 2002, The Economist. (Aug, 10th)
Meier, Andrew, 2000, “Reporter Missing”, Time:Asia, 155
(8):29.
Meier, Andrew and Quinn-Judge, Paul ,2000, “Warpath to
Power”, Time:Asia, 155(2):24-26.
Mission Survey, 2003, “The OSCE Assistance Group to
Chechnya”, www.osce.org.
“More of the Same”, 2001, The Economist.(Mar, 29th)
“New Chechen Representative in Moscow”, 2003, Chechnya
Weekly 4(5):3-4.
Official Statement, 2003, “Ilyas Akhmadov will Present
today a New Peace Proposal”, Ministry of Foreign
Affairs, Chechen Republic of Ichkeria . (Mar, 18th)
OSCE/ ODIHR, Council of Europe, “A Joint Assessment
Mission Statement of the OSCE/ODIHR and the Council of
Europe”, Referendum on a New Chechen constitution causes
contradictory reactions, www.watchdog.cz. (Mar, 03rd)
“Poacher Turned Gamekeeper”, 2001, The Economist. (Sep,
20th)
“Power Struggle Erupts Within Pro-Moscow Chechen
Administration”, 2003, Chechnya Weekly, 4(1):2.
“Putin Talks of Amnesty after Chechen Vote”, 2003,
Gazeta.ru. (Mar, 18th)
Quinn-Judge, Paul 2000, “Run for the Roses”, Time:Asia,155
(13):40-41. (Apr, 3rd)
______________, 2001, “Guerrillas in Grozny”, Time:Asia,
157(23):23.
______________, 2000, “Stuck in Chechnya”, Time:Asia, 155
(3):24-25.
______________, 2001, “The Politics of Mind over Matter”,
Time:Aisa,157(3):22-25.
Ratnesar, Romesh, 2001, “Putin Media Blitz”, Time:Asia,
157(17):62.
“Referendum Set for March 23”, 2003, Chechnya Weekly, 4
(1):6.
Ricks, Thomas E., 1998, “The Lessons of Chechnya”, The
Washington Monthly, 30(4):46-48.
Rodman, Peter W., 1995, “If Yeltsin only Knew…”,
National Review, 47(3):26-27.
“Russia Sets the Price for Kosovo”, 1999, The Observer.
(Dec, 12th)
“Russian Opinion Turns Away from War”, 2003, Chechnya
Weekl,y 4(1):2
“Russo-American Summitry Slipping into Old Habits”, 1995,
NPR: All Things Considered. (Jan, 17th)
Serebrennikov, Robert, 1998, “Communist Faction to Vote
Against Chernomyrdin”, Itar-Tass News Wire. (Sep, 01st)
Shanayev, Valery, 1998, “Russia Needs Effective
Nationalities Policy in Caucasus”,
Itar-Tass News Wire. (Nov, 12th)
Starobin, Paul, 2002, “Chechnya: Time for the West to
Pressure Putin”, NY: Business Week3807, p.54.
Sepp, Jaan. 1999, “The Chechen Holocaust”, Tukistan News.
(Oct, 08th)
“Special Article: Russia and the West: Still Most Awkward
Partners”, 1998, The Economist, 347(8067):21-24.
“Suicide Bombing in Grozny”, 2003, Chechnya Weekly, 4
(1):6.
“The Constitution : ‘ Broad Autonomy’ for Chechnya?”
2003, Chechnya Weekly, 4(4):2-3.
“The Lost Cause of the Caucasus”, 2002, The Economist,
365:25.
“The Rise of the New Right”, 1995, The Economist, 334
(7899):21-25.
Thompson, Ewa M., 1998, “Nationalism, Imperialism,
Identity: Second Thoughts”, Modern Age, 40(3):250-262.
“To die for Chechnya?”, 1995, National Review, 47(1):17-
19.
Tumsoyev, Musa 2002, “The Russian-Chechen Conflict in the
Context of International Politics”, Prague Watchdog, Dec
16th.
“U.S. State Department Adds Chechen Groups to Official
List of Terrorists”, 2003, Chechnya Weekly 4(6):2-4.
“Vladimir Putin’s Long, Hard Haul”, 2002, The Economist,
www.economist.com.
Walberg, Peder, 1998, “Economic Change, Crime, and
Mortality Crisis in Russia: Regional Analysis”, British
Medical Journal, 317(7154):312-319.
“Welcome to the Real Russia”, 1995, U.S. News & World Report, 118(18):50-53.
“Where Worlds Collide?”, 2000, The Economist. (Aug, 17th)
“Yeltsin Government Severely Damaged by Chechnya Revolt”,
1995, NPR: Morning Edition. ( Jan, 13th)
“Yeltsin Has Changed, Say Russians”, 1994, NPR: Weekend
All Things Considered. (Dec, 31th)
“Yeltsin Makes Long-awaited State of the Nation Address”,
1995, NPR: Morning Edition. (Feb, 16th)
“Yeltsin Pledges Continued Support of Democracy”, 1995,
NPR: All Things Considered. (Feb, 16th).
“Yeltsin, Right or Wrong?”, The Economist, 334(7905):17-
19.
Yjgov, Sergey., 2003, “Can Chechnya Problem Be Settled
Without Russia?” www.bbc.co.uk.


QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊