(3.236.214.19) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/09 20:54
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:錢香伶
研究生(外文):Hsian-Ling Chien
論文名稱:乳酸菌與雙叉桿菌發酵豆奶中異黃酮素含量之變化
論文名稱(外文):Change of isoflavones contents in cultured soymilk fermented with lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria
指導教授:周正俊周正俊引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cheng-Chun Chou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:食品科技研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:豆奶乳酸菌異黃酮素發酵豆奶
外文關鍵詞:fermented soymilksoymilkisoflavonebifidobacterialactic acid bacteria
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:16
  • 點閱點閱:489
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
摘 要
異黃酮為天然存在於大豆之植物雌激素,共有十二種衍生物。其中以醣苷配基 (aglycone) 形式存在之異黃酮素較易被人體吸收且具較高之生理活性。本研究以豆奶為基質,利用乳酸菌 (Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus BCRC 14085, Lactobacillus acidophilus BCRC 14079) 及雙叉桿菌 (Bifidobacterium infantis BCRC 14633, B. longum B6) 單獨或共同進行發酵,探討發酵過程中異黃酮素含量與β-葡萄糖苷酶活性之變化情形,並比較發酵豆奶製品中之異黃酮素在不同貯存條件下含量之變化。
結果顯示,豆奶發酵後,醣苷配基 (aglycone) 形式之異黃酮素 (daidzein, genistein 及 glycitein) 含量顯著增加,在所測試不同菌酛發酵之豆奶中,以 S. thermophilus 單獨發酵者醣苷配基之增加最多,其次為 S. thermophilus 與 B. longum 之共同發酵者。此外,隨著發酵時間之延長,豆奶中之β-葡萄糖苷酶 (β-glucosidase) 活性逐漸提高,且與醣苷配基形式之異黃酮素含量增加有相同的趨勢,而含葡萄糖苷之異黃酮素 (β-glucosides, malonylglucosides 及acetylglucosides) 之含量則逐漸減少。
發酵豆奶飲料經 4℃ 貯存期間中,以避光包材貯存者之異黃酮素含量保存效果較佳。此外,發酵豆奶乾燥製品之異黃酮素含量以添加有乾燥劑及脫氧劑且於 4℃ 下貯存者之保存效果最佳,於 25℃ 下不添加任何食品保存劑者異黃酮素之保存效果最差。
Abstract
Isoflavone is an important category of flavonoids and belongs to the phytoestrogen class. There are twelve major isoflavone isomers found in soybean. Isoflavone aglycones (daidzein, genistein and glycitein) are thought to be the most bioactive isomers among the isoflavones. This study investigated the changes of isoflavone composition and activity of β-glucosidase during the fermentation of soymilk with lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus BCRC 14085, Lactobacillus acidophilus BCRC 14079) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium infantis BCRC 14633, B. longum B6) alone or simultaneously. On the other hand, the changes of isoflavone contents of the fermented soymilk products under different packaging and storage conditions were investigated.
The results showed that soymilk after fermentation, the contents of isoflavone malonylglucosides, acetylglucosides and β-glucosides decreased significantly. On the contrary, the amount of aglycones, (daidzein, genistein and glycitein) increased significantly. Among all the fermented soymilks tested, the greatest increase in the contents of aglycones and the highest β-glucosidase activity were noted in soymilk fermented with Streptococcus thermophilus, followed by that fermented with S. thermophilus and Bifidobacterium longum simultaneously. It was also noted that as the fermentation time was extended, the contents of aglycones and activity of β-glucosidase in soymilk was raised.
Fermented soymilks kept in dark glass bottles retained isoflavone contents much more than those kept in glass bottles exposure to light during the storage period. A better retention of isoflavone was noted in dried fermented soymilk that was held in dessicant and deoxidant containing bottle and stored at 4℃. On the other hand, retention of isoflavone in dried fermented soymilk was the poorest which was held in bottle without dessicant and deoxident and stored at 25℃.
目 錄
頁次
摘要 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- I
Abstract ---------------------------------------------------------------------- II
目錄 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- III
圖次 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- V
表次 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- VII
壹、前言 -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
貳、文獻整理 --------------------------------------------------------------- 2
一、 黃豆及其加工製品 ---------------------------------------------- 2
1. 黃豆之簡介 ------------------------------------------------------- 2
2. 黃豆之化學組成 ------------------------------------------------- 3
3. 黃豆之加工利用及食用限制 ---------------------------------- 4
二、 異黃酮素 ---------------------------------------------------------- 6
1. 異黃酮素之簡介 ------------------------------------------------- 6
2. 異黃酮素之吸收代謝 ------------------------------------------- 6
3. 異黃酮素之生理活性 ------------------------------------------- 10
3-1異黃酮素與癌症 ------------------------------------------- 10
3-2異黃酮素與心血管疾病 ---------------------------------- 12
3-3異黃酮素與骨質疏鬆症 ---------------------------------- 12
3-4異黃酮素之抗氧化活性 ---------------------------------- 13
4. 黃豆及其製品中異黃酮素之含量 ---------------------------- 13
5. 異黃酮素之分析方法 ------------------------------------------- 17
三、 益生菌 ------------------------------------------------------------- 26
1. 益生菌之簡介 ---------------------------------------------------- 26
1.1益生菌之定義 ---------------------------------------------- 26
1-2理想益生菌之特性 ---------------------------------------- 27
1-3益生菌之營養機能與健康效益 ------------------------- 27
2. 乳酸菌之簡介 ---------------------------------------------------- 32
2-1乳酸菌之定義與特性 ------------------------------------- 32
2-2乳酸菌之分類 ---------------------------------------------- 32
3. 雙叉桿菌之簡介 ------------------------------------------------- 33
參、材料與方法 ------------------------------------------------------------ 35
一、實驗材料 ----------------------------------------------------------- 35
1.菌種 ---------------------------------------------------------------- 35
2.黃豆 ---------------------------------------------------------------- 35
3.藥品 ---------------------------------------------------------------- 35
4.儀器設備與器材 ------------------------------------------------- 36
二、實驗方法 ----------------------------------------------------------- 38
1.菌種之保存 ------------------------------------------------------- 38
2.接種源之製備 ---------------------------------------------------- 38
3.豆奶基質之製備 ------------------------------------------------- 38
4.發酵豆奶之製備 ------------------------------------------------- 38
5.異黃酮素之分析方法 ------------------------------------------- 39
5-1 異黃酮素之分離 ------------------------------------------ 39
5-2 HPLC分析效果之評估 ---------------------------------- 39
5-3異黃酮素標準曲線製作 ---------------------------------- 40
5-4豆奶中異黃酮素之定量 ---------------------------------- 41
6.異黃酮素之萃取方法 ------------------------------------------- 41
7.豆奶中β-葡萄糖苷酶活性之測定 --------------------------- 41
8.貯存試驗 ---------------------------------------------------------- 42
8-1 發酵豆奶飲料之貯存試驗 ------------------------------ 42
8-2 發酵豆奶乾燥製品於貯存過程中異黃酮素含量變化之情形 -------------------------------------------------- 42
9.統計分析 ---------------------------------------------------------- 42
肆、結果與討論 ------------------------------------------------------------ 44
一、分析方法之選擇 -------------------------------------------------- 44
二、HPLC異黃酮素之分離 ------------------------------------------ 44
三、HPLC分析效果之評估 ------------------------------------------ 47
四、異黃酮素標準曲線之製作 -------------------------------------- 49
五、發酵豆奶之異黃酮素含量 -------------------------------------- 52
六、發酵豆奶中 β-glucosidase 活性 ----------------------------- 54
七、豆奶發酵過程中異黃酮素含量與β-glucosidase活性之變化 -------------------------------------------------------------------- 56
八、發酵豆奶飲料於貯存過程中異黃酮素含量變化之情形 -- 62
九、發酵豆奶乾燥製品於貯存過程中異黃酮素含量變化之情形 ------------------------------------------------------------------- 74
伍、結論 --------------------------------------------------------------------- 82
陸、參考文獻 --------------------------------------------------------------- 84


圖 次
頁次
圖一、異黃酮素之化學結構式 ------------------------------------------ 7
圖二、異黃酮素之代謝與排泄途徑以及腸道微生物之影響 ------ 9
圖三、黃豆食品中genistein之化學形式 ------------------------------ 16
圖四、由烘烤去脂大豆薄片中萃出的黃豆雌激素之層析圖 ------ 18
圖五、組織黃豆粉以80%甲醇萃取後之高效率液相層析圖 ------ 19
圖六、利用C18半製備型管柱分析黃豆萃取物之逆相層析圖 --- 21
圖七、豆奶 (A)、豆腐 (B) 及味噌 (C) 萃取物之逆相層析圖 --- 22
圖八、組織性植物蛋白中異黃酮素之逆相高效率液相層析圖 --- 23
圖九、組織性植物蛋白中異黃酮素之高效率液相層析圖 --------- 24
圖十、一般黃豆食品中異黃酮素之高效率液相層析圖 ------------ 25
圖十一、十二種異黃酮標準品及內部標準品之逆向HPLC層析圖譜 -------------------------------------------------------------- 46
圖十二、發酵豆奶之 ��-glucosidase 活性 ----------------------------- 55
圖十三、接種 Streptococcus thermophilus 於豆奶發酵期間daidzein、genistein、glycitein 含量及β-glucosidase 活性之變化---------------------------------------------------------- 60
圖十四、接種 Streptococcus thermophilus 及 Bifidobacterium logum於豆奶發酵期間daidzein、genistein、glycitein 含量及β-glucosidase 活性之變化----------------------------- 61
圖十五、S. thermophilus發酵豆奶貯存於4℃下總異黃酮含量之變化 -------------------------------------------------------------- 63
圖十六、S. thermophilus發酵豆奶貯存於4℃下丙二醯葡萄糖苷異黃酮素含量之變化 ----------------------------------------- 64
圖十七、S. thermophilus發酵豆奶貯存於4℃乙醯葡萄糖苷異黃酮素含量之變化 ----------------------------------------------- 65
圖十八、S. thermophilus發酵豆奶貯存於4℃下β-葡萄糖苷異黃酮素含量之變化 ----------------------------------------------- 66
圖十九、S. thermophilus發酵豆奶貯存於4℃下醣苷配基異黃酮素含量之變化 -------------------------------------------------- 67
圖二十、S. thermophilus及B. longum發酵豆奶貯存於4℃下總異黃酮含量之變化 -------------------------------------------- 69
圖二十一、 S. thermophilus及B. longum 發酵豆奶貯存於4℃下丙二醯葡萄糖苷異黃酮素含量之變化 -------------------- 70
圖二十二、S. thermophilus及B. longum 發酵豆奶貯存於4℃下乙醯葡萄糖苷異黃酮素含量之變化 ----------------------- 71
圖二十三、S. thermophilus及B. longum 發酵豆奶貯存於4℃下β-葡萄糖苷異黃酮素含量之變化 ------------------------- 72
圖二十四、 S. thermophilus及B. longum 發酵豆奶貯存於4℃下醣苷配基異黃酮素含量之變化 ----------------------------- 73
圖二十五、S. thermophilus發酵豆奶乾燥製品於不同包裝貯存條件下總異黃酮含量之變化 ----------------------------------- 77
圖二十六、S. thermophilus發酵豆奶乾燥製品於不同包裝貯存條件下丙二醯葡萄糖苷異黃酮素含量之變化 -------------- 78
圖二十七、 S. thermophilus發酵豆奶乾燥製品於不同包裝貯存條件下乙醯葡萄糖苷異黃酮素含量之變化 -------------- 79
圖二十八、 S. thermophilus發酵豆奶乾燥製品於不同包裝貯存條件下β-葡萄糖苷異黃酮素含量之變化 ---------------- 80
圖二十九、S. thermophilus發酵豆奶乾燥製品於不同包裝貯存條件下醣苷配基異黃酮素含量之變化 ----------------------- 81


表 次
頁次
表一、傳統大豆食品中異黃酮素之含量 -------------------------------- 14
表二、用於益生菌產品之菌株 -------------------------------------------- 28
表三、十二種異黃酮素及內部標準品以水及氰甲烷為梯度動相之滯留時間、滯留常數、選擇係數及解析度 ---------------------- 48
表四、以十二種異黃酮素標準品測得之分析精密度 ----------------- 50
表五、異黃酮素濃度對積分面積之標準曲線線性函數及相關係數 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 51
表六、發酵豆奶之異黃酮素含量 ----------------------------------------- 53
表七、接種 S. thermophilus 於豆奶發酵期間之異黃酮素含量變化 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57
表八、接種 S. thermophilus 及 B. longum 於豆奶發酵期間之異黃酮素含量變化 ------------------------------------------------------- 58
陸、參考文獻
江文德。1998。簡介大豆中的異黃酮素。食品工業 30(9):6-12。
李福臨。2000。乳酸菌分類之研究近況。食品工業。32(8):36-42。
沈明來。1993。試驗設計學。九州圖書公司。台北。
津崎真一。1998。大豆イソフラポンの癌予防效果につい。New food Industry 40(4):59-64。
張為憲 李敏雄 呂政義 張永和 陳昭雄 孫璐西 陳怡宏 張基郁 顏國欽 林志城 林慶文。1995。食品化學。台北。國立編譯館。
許夏芬、張肇麟、朱燕華。2000。數種蔬菜中類黃酮含量及抗氧化性分析。台灣農業化學與食品科學 38(5):377-387。
陳世爵。1992。豆腐專用之黃豆及其特性。食品工業。24(11):49-51。
陳慶源、林富美。2004。益生菌之保健功效。食品工業 36(3):1-3。
陳慧如。1997。味增概說。食品工業29(2):40-47。
新編中藥大辭典。1982。第三冊。新文豐出版公司。台南市。
楊永本。1986。世界黃豆之生產供應及品種。食品工業18(10):6-9。
楊炳輝。2000。豆奶加工技術。食品工業月刊。32(1):52-59。
廖啟成。1998。乳酸菌之分類利用。食品工業 30(2): 1-10.
戴蔭方、劉成軍、張超良、曹慶榮和李保真。1995。藥用蔬果。度假出版社。P.86-90。
顏文俊。1991。腸內菌群與人體健康。食品工業。23(9):46-52。
Adlercreutz H, Mousavi Y, Clark J, Hockerstedt K, Hase T. 1992. Dietary hytoestrogens and cancer: in vivo and in vitro studies. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 41:331-337.
Alhasan SA, Pietrasczkiwicz H, Alonso MD, Ensley J, Sarkar FH. 1999. Genistein –induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line. Nutr Cancer 34:12-19.
Alm L, Ryd-Kjellen E, Setterberg G, Blomquist L. 1993. Effect of a new fermented milk product “cultura” on constipation in geriatric patients. The Lact Acid Bact 1st Lact Acid Bact Comp Conf 1-4.
Anderson JJB, Garner SC 1997. phytoestrogens and human function. Nutr Today 32(6):232-239.
Arunachalam KD. 1999. Role of bifidobacteria in nutrition, medicine and technology. Nutr Res 19: 1559-1597.
Axelson M, Sctchell KDR 1981. The excretion of lignans in rats-evidence for an intestinal bacterial source for this new group of compounds. FEBS letter 123:337-342.
Axelson M, Sjövall J, gustafsson BE, Setchell KDR 1984. Soya-a dietary source of the non-steroidal oestrogen equal in man and animals. J Endocrinol 102:49-56.
Bankova V, Christov G, Stove G, Popov S. 1992. Determination of phenolis by capillary gas chromatography. J Chromatogr 607:150-153.
Bannwart C, Fotsis T, Heikkinen R, Aldercreutz H. 1984. Identification of the isoflavonic phytoestrogen daidzein in human urine. Clin Chim Acta 136:165-172.
Barnes S, Coward L, Kirk M, Sfakianos J. 1998. HPLC-mass spectrometry analysis of isoflavones. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 217(3):254-262.
Barnes S, Kirk M, Coward L. 1994. Isoflavones and their conjugates in soy foods: Extraction conditions and analysis by HPLC-mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 42:2466-2474.
Barnes S, Peterson TG, Cowards L. 1995. Rationale for the use of genistein-containing soy martrixes in chemoprevention trails for breast and prostate cancer. J cell Bilchem Suppl 22:181-187.
Black FT, Andersen PL, Ørskov J, Ørskov F, Gaarslev K, Laulund S. 1989. Prophylactic efficacy of lactobacilli on traveler’s diarrhea. Travel Medicine 333-335.
Boos G, Stopper H. 2000. Genotoxicity of several clinically used topoisomerase II inhibitors. Toxicology Letters 116:7-16.
Bouhnik Y, Flourie B, Andrieux C, Bisetti N, Briet F, Rambaud J. 1996. Effects of Bifidobacterium sp. fermented milk ingested with or without insulin on colonic bifidobacteria and enzymatic activities in healthy humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 50: 269-273.
Bressani R, Elias LG. 1968. Processed vegetable protein mixtures for human consumption in developing countries. In: Chichester CO, Mark EM, Stewart GF, eds. Advances in Food Research. Vol. 16. New York: Academic Press, pp. 1-103.
Cai Q, Wei H. 1996. Effect of dietary genistein on antioxidant enzyme activities in SENCAR mice. Nutr Cancer 25:1-7.
Chen AO, Luh BS. 1976. Oligosaccharides and nutrients in soybean sprouts. Food Sci 3:13-15.
Chiou RYY, Cheng SL. 2001. Isoflavones transformation during soybean koji preparation and subsequent miso fermentation supplemented with ethanol and NaCl. J. Apric Food Chem 49:3656-3660.
Chu YH, Lin JW. 1993. Factors affecting the content of tocopherol in soybean oil. JAOCS 70:1263-1268.
Cohen LA, Zhao Z, Pittman B, Scimeca JA. 2000. Effect of intact and isoflavone-depleted soy protein on NMU-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis 21:929-935.
Collins FI, Sedgwick VE 1959. Fatty acid composition of several vareties of soybeans. JAOCS 36:641-644.
Collins JK, Thornton G, Sullivan GO. 1998. Selection of probiotic strains for human applications. Int Dairy J 8: 487-490.
Coward L, Barnes NC, Setchell KDR, Barnes S. 1993. Genistein, daidzein, and their β-glcoside conjugates: antitumor isoflavones in soybean foods from American and asian diets. J Agric Food Chem 40:1961-1967.
Coward L, Smith M, Kirk M, Branes S. 1998. Chemical modification of isoflavones in soyfoods during cooking and processing. Am J Clin Nutr 68:1486s-1491s.
Crouse JR 3rd, Morgan T, Terry JG, Ellis J, Vitolins M, Burke GL. 1999. A randomized trial comparing the effect of casein with that of soy protein containing varying amounts of isoflavones on plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins. Archives of Internal Medicine 159:2070-6.
Davies CGA, Netto FM, Glassenap N, Gallagher CM, Labuza TP, Gallaher DD. 1998. Indication of Maillard reaction during storage of protein isolates. J Agric Food Chem 46:2485-2489.
Deguchi Y, Morishita T, Mutai M. 1985. Comparative studies on synthesis of water-soluble vitamins among human species of bifidobacteria. Agric Biol Chem 49:13-19.
Desjardins ML, Roy D. 1990. Growth of bifidobacteria and their enzyme profiles. J Dairy Sci 73:299-307.
Diab SG, Castles CG, Fuqua SAW. 1996. Role of altered esterogen receptors in breast cancer. In: Hormones and Cancer. Vedeckic WV ed. Birkhaauser Boston, USA pp.261-281.
Djuric Z, Chen G, Doerge DR, Heilbrun LK, Kucuk O. 2001. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on markers of oxidative stress in men and women. Cancer Letters 172:1-6.
Dolan TW. 1990. Retention-time variation: A case study. LC-GC 8:842-844.
Dwyer JT, Goldin BR, Saul N, Gualtieri L, Barakat S. 1994. Tofu and soy drinks contain phytoestrogens. J Am Diet Assoc 94:739-743.
Eldridge AC, Kwolek WF 1983. Soybean isoflavones:effect of environment and variety on composition. J Agric Food Chem 31:394-396.
Eldridge AC. 1982. High-performance liguid chromatography separation of soybean isoflavones and their glucosides. J Chromatogr 234:494-496.
Esaki H, Onozaki H, Osawa T. 1994. Antioxidative activity of fermented soybean products. In:Huang MT, editor. Food phytochemicals for cancer prevention I, fruits and vegetables. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. P353-360.
Farmakalidis E, Murphy PA. 1984. Semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatographic isolation of soybean isoflavones. J Chromatogr 295:510-514.
Farmakalidis E, Murphy PA. 1985. Isolation of 6”-O-acetylgenistin and 6”-O-acetyldaidzin from toasted defatted soyflakes. J Agric Food Chem 33:385-389.
Fenner GP. 1996. Low-temperature treatment of soybean (Glycine max) isoflavonoid aglycon extracts improves gas chromatographic resolution. J Agric Food Chem 44(12):3727-3729.
Fooks LJ, Fuller R, Gibson, GR 1999. Prebiotics, probiotics and human gut microbiology. Int Dairy J 9:53-61.
Franke AA, Hankin JH, Yu MC, Maskarinec G, Low SH, Custer LJ. 1999. Isoflavone levels in soy foods consumed by multiethnic populations in Singapore and Hawaii. J Agric Food Chem 47:977-986.
Frazier WC, Westhoff DC. 1988. Microorganisms important in food microbiology. In: Frazier WC, Westhoff DC, eds. Food Microbiology. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Fukushima M, Yamada A, Endo T, Nakano M. 1999. Effect of organisms,Lactobaccillus acidophilus on Δ6-desaturase activity in the livers of rats fed a fat-and-cholesterol-enriched diet. Nutrition 15:373-378.
Fukutake M, Takahshi M, Ishida K. 1996. Quantification of genistein and genistin in soybeans and soybean products. Food Chem Toxicol 34:457-461.
Garcia MC, Torre M, Marina ML, Laborda F. 1997. Composition and characterization of soyabean and related products. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 37:361-391.
Ghosh P, Fenner GP. 1999. Improved method for gas chromatographic analysis of genistein and daidzein from soybean (Glycine max) seeds. J Agric Food Chem 47:3455-3456.
Gibson G, Roberfroid MB.1995. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbe:introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125:1401-1412.
Gibson GR, Fuller R. 2000. Aspects of in vitro and in vivo research approaches directed toward identifying probiotics and prebiotics for human use. J Nutr 130: 391s-395s.
Gibson GR, McCartney AL. 1998. Modification of the gut flora by dietary means. Biochem Soc Trans 26: 222-227.
Giese J. 1994. Proteins as ingredients: Types, functions, applications. Food Technology 10:56-60..
Giles D, Wei H. 1997. Effect of structurally related flavones/isoflavones on hydrogen peroxide production and oxidative DNA damage in phorbol Ester-stimulated HL-60 cells. Nutr Cancer 29:77-82.
Gilliland SE, Kim HS. 1984. Effect of viable starter culture bacteria in yoghrt on lactose utilization in humans. J Dairy Sci 67:1-6.
Gismondo MR, Drago L, Lombardi A. 1999. Review of probiotics available to modify gastrointestinal flora. Int J Antimicrob Agents 12: 287-292.
Gomes AMP, Malcata FX. 1999. Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus : biological、biochemical、technological and therapeutical properties relevant for use as probiotics. Trends Food Sci Technol 10: 139-157.
Gorbach SL, Plaut AG, Nahas L, Wein-stein L, Spanknebel G., Levitan R. 1967. Studies of intestinal microflora H-microorganisms of the small intestine and their relations to oral and faecal flora. Gastroenterology 53:856-867.
Gutendorf B, Westendorf J. 2001. Comparison of an array of in vitro assays for the assessment of the estrogenic potential of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens and xenoestrogens. Toxicology 166:79-89.
Hammnn WT, Marth EH. 1984. Survival of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus in commercial and experimental yogurts. J Food Prot 47: 781-786.
Harrison VC, Peat G. 1975. Serum cholesterol and bowel flora in the newborn. Am J Clin Nutr 28:1351-1355.
Hawksworth G, Drasar BS, Hill MJ. 1971. Intestinal bacteria and the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds. J Med Microbiol. 4(4):451-459.
Hendrich S, Lee KW, Xu X Wang HJ, Murphy PA. 1994. Defining food components as new nutrients. J Nutr 124:1789s-1792s.
Holazpfel WH, Haberer P, Snel J, Schillinger U, Huis in’t Veld JHJ. 1998. Overview of gut flora and probiotics, Int J Food Microbiol 41:85-101.
Hose H, Sozzi T. 1991. Biotechnology group meeting probiotics – fact or fiction. J Chem Technol Biotech 51:540-544.
Hosono A, Lee J, Ametani A, Natsume M, Hiratama M, Adachi T Kaminogawa S. 1997. Characterization of a water-soluble polysaccharide fraction with immunopotentiating activity from Bifidobacterium adolescentis M101-4. Biosci Biotech Biochem 61(2):312-316.
Huff MW, Hamilton RM, Carroll KK. 1977. Plasma cholesterollevels in rabbits fed low fat, cholesterol-free, semipurifid diets: Effects of dietary proteins, protein hydrolysates and amino acids mixtures. Atherosclerosis 28:187-195.
Hull RR, Conway PL, Evans AJ. 1992. Probiotic food - a new opportunity. Food Aust 44:112-113.
International Conference on Harmonization (ICH)-Guideline on the Validation of Analytical Procedures:Methodology Q2B, Novermber 1996.
Ishibashi N, Shimamura S. 1993. Bifidobacteria: Research and Development in Japan. Food technol 6: 126-136.
Iwashita K, Kobori M, Yamaki K, Tsushida T. 2000. Flavonoids inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in B16 melanima 4A5 cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 64:1813-1820.
Izumi T, Piskula MK, Osawa S, Obata A, Tobe K, Saito M, Kataoka S, Kubota Y, Kikuchi M. 2000. Soy Isoflavone aglycones are absorbed faster and in higher amounts than their glucosides in humans. J Nutr. 130(7):1695-1699.
Jackson C-JC, Dini JP, Lavandier C, Rupasinghe HPV, Faulkner H, Poysa V, Buzzell K, Degrandis S. 2002. Effects of processing on the content and composition of isoflavones during manufacturing of soy beverage and tofu. Proc Biochem 37:1117-1123.
Jiang T, Mustapha A, Savaiano DA. 1996. Improvement of lactose digestion in humans by injection of fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium longum. J Dairy Sci 79:750-757.
Kao TH, Chen BH. 2002. An improved method for determination of isoflavones in soybean powder by liquid chromatography. Chromatographia 56:423-430.
Kasper H. 1998. Protecion against gastrointestunal disease - present facts and future developments. Int J Food Microbiol 41:127-131.
Kaur IP, Chopra K, Saini A. 2002. Probiotics: potential pharmaceutical applicatiobs. Eur J Pharm Sci 15:1-9.
Kikuchi-Hayakawa H, Onodera-Masuoka N, Kano M, Matsubara S, Yasuda E, Ishikawa F. 2000. Effect of soy milk and bifidobacterium-fermented soy milk on plasma and liver lipids in ovariectomized Syrian hamsters. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 46: 105-108.
King RA, Bignell CM. 2000. Concentration of isoflavone phytoestrogens and their glucosides in Australian soya beans and soya foods. Aus J Nutr Diet 57(2):70-78.
Kitazawa H, Itoh T, Tomioka Y, Mizugaki M Yamaguchi T. 1996. Induction of IFN-γand IL-1α production in macrophages stimulated with phosphopolysaccharide produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris. Int J Food Microbol 31:99-106.
Klaver FAM, Meer RV. 1993. The assumed assimilation of cholesterol by lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium bifidum is due to their bile salt-deconjugating activity. Appl Environ Microbiol 59: 1120-1124.
Kleessen B, Sykura B, Zunft HJ, Blaut M. 1997. Effects of inulin and lactose on fecal microflora, microbial activity, and bowel habit in elderly constipated persons. Am J Clin Nutr 65:1397-1402.
Lee HP, Gorulery L, Duffy SW, Esteve J, Day NE. 1991. Dietary effects on breast-cancer risk in Singapore. Lancet 337:1197-1200.
Lee SJ, Ahn JK, Kim SH, Kim JT, Han SJ, Jnug MY, Chung IM. 2003. Variation in isoflavone of soybean cultivars with location and storage duration. J Agric Food Chem 51:3382-3389.
Lee YK, Salminen S. 1995. The coming of age of probiotics. Trends Food Sci Technol 6: 241-245.
Macrae R ed. 1982. HPLC in Food Analysis. Orlando, Florida, USA. Academic Press Inc Ltd.
Marteau PR, de Vrese M, Cellier CJ, Schrezenmeir J. 2001. Protection from gastrointestinal disease with the use of probiotics. Am J Clin Nutr 73: 430s-436s.
Matsuda S, Norimoto F, Matsumoto Y, Ohba R, Teramoto Y, Ohta N, Ueda S. 1994. Solubilization of a novel isoflavone glucoside-hydrolyzing ��-glucosidase from Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus. J. Ferment Bioeng 77:439-441.
Matsuura M, Obata A, Fukushima D. 1989. Objectionable flavor of soy milk developed during the soaking of soybeans and its control. J Food Sci 54(3):602
Matsuura M, Obata A. 1993. β-Glucosidase from soybeans hydrolyze daidzein and genistein. J Food Sci 50(1):144-147.
Matsuzaki T, Yamazaki R, Hashimoto S, Yokokura T. 1998. The effect of oral feeding of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on immunoglobulin E production in mice. J Dairy Sci 81(1):48-53
Mattick LR, Hand DB. 1969. Identification of a volatile component in soybeans that contributes to the raw bean flavor. J Agric Food Chem 17:15-17.
Messina MJ, Persky V, Setchell KDR, Barnes S. 1994. Soy intake and cancer risk:a review of the in vitro and in vivo data. Nutr Cancer 21:113-131.
Mital BK, Shallenberger RS, Steinkraus KH. 1973. α-galactosidase activity of lactobacilli. Appl Microbiol 26:783-788.
Mital BK, Steinkraus KH. 1975. Utilization of oligosaccharides by lactic acid bacteria during fermentation of soy milk. J Dairy Sci 40:114-118.
Mital BK, Steinkraus KH. 1979. Fermentation of soymilk by lactic acid bacteria: A review. J Food Prot 42: 895-900.
Mitsuoka T. 1982. Recent trends in research on intestinal flora. Bifidobact Microflora 3:3-24.
Mitsuoka T. 1990. Bifidobacteria and their role in human health. J Ind Microbiol 6:263-268.
Morton MS, Wilcox G, Wahlqvist ML, Griffiths K. 1994. Determination of lignans and isoflavonoids in human female plasma following dietary supplementation. J Endocrinol 142:251-271.
Mousavi Y, Adlercreutz H. 1993. Genistein is an effective stimulator of sex hormone-binding globulin production in hepatocarcinoma human liver cancer cells and suppresses proliferation of these cells in culture. Steroids 58:301-4.
Moyad MA. 1999. Soy, disease prevention, and prostate cancer. Sem Urolog Oncol 17:97-102.
Murakami H, Asakawa T, Terao J. Matsushita S. 1984. Antioxidative stability of temph and liberation of isoflavones by fermentation. Agric Biol Chem 48:2971-2975.
Murphy CT, Kellie S, Westwick J. 1993. Tyrosine-kinase activity in rabbit platelts stimulated with platelet-activating factor. Eur J Biochem 216:639-651.
Murphy PA, Barua K, Hauck CC. 2002. Solvent extraction selection in the determination of isoflavones in soy foods. J Chromatogr B777:129-138.
Murphy PA, Song T, Buseman G, Barua K, Beecher GR, Trainer D, Holden J. 1999. Isoflavones in retail and institutional soy foods. J Agric Food Chem 47:2697-2704.
Murphy PA, Song T, Buseman G, Barua K. 1997. Isoflavones in soy-based infant formulas. J Agric Food Chem 45:4635-4638.
Murphy PA. 1981. Separation of genistin, Daidzin and their aglucones, and coumesterol by gradient high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 211:166-169.
Murti TW, Bouillanne C, Landon M, Desmazeaud MJ. 1993. Bacterial growth and volatile compounds in yogurt-type products from soymilk containing Bifidobacterium ssp.. J Food Sci 58:153-156.
Naidu AS, Bidlack, WR, Clemens, RA.1999. Probiotic spectra of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 39:13-126.
Naim M, Gestetner B, Zilkah S, Birk Y, Bondi A. 1974. Soybean isoflavones, characterization, determination, and antifungal activity. J Agric Food Chem 22:806-810.
O’sullivan MG, Thornton G, Osullivan GC, Collins JK. 1992. Probiotic bacteria: myth or reality? Trends Food Sci Technol 3: 309-314.
Ogawa N, Statsu H, Watanabe H, Fukatya M, Tsukamoto Y, Miyamoto Y, Shimizu M. 2000. Acetic acid suppresses the increase in disaccharidases activity that occurs during culture of caco-2 cell. J Nutr 130:507-513.
Onozawa M, Fukuda K, Ohtani M, Akaza H, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K. 1998. Effects of soybean isoflavones on cell growth and apoptosis of the human prostatic cancer cell line LNCaP.Jpn J Clin Oncol 28: 360-363.
Peterson G, Barnes S. 1991. Genistein inhibition of the growth of human breast cancer cells: Independence from estrogen receptors and the multi-drug resistance gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 179:661-667.
Polkowski K, Mazurek AP. 2000. Biological properties of genistein. A review of in vitro and in vivo data. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica 57:135-55.
Pratt DE, Birac PM. 1979. Source of antioxidant activity of soybeans and soy products. J Food Sci 44:1720-1723.
Reinli K, Block G. 1996. Phytoestrogen content of foods—a compendium of literature values. Nutr Cancer 26:123-48.
Roy G, Lombardia M, Palacios C, Serrano A, Cespon C, Ortega E, Eiras P, Lujan S, Revlla Y, Gonzalez-Porque P. 2000. Mechanistic aspects of the induction of apoptosis by lauryl gallate in the murine B-cell lymphoma line Wehi 231. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 383:206-14.
Ruiz-Larrea MB, Mohan AR, Paganga G, Miller NJ, Bolwell GP, Rice-Evans CA. 1997. Antioxidant activity of phytoestrogenic isoflavones. Free Radic Res. 26(1):63-70.
Salminen S, von Wright A, Morelli L, Marteau P. 1999. Demonstration for safety of probiotics – a review. Int J Food Microbiol 44:93-106.
Scardovi V. 1986. Bifidobacterium. In: Sneath PH, Mair NS, Sharpe ME, Holt JG. eds. Bergey''s Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 9th edn. Vol. 2. Baltimore, haD: Williams and Wilkins Publishers, pp.1418-1434.
Scheinbach S. 1998. Probiotics:functionality and commercial status. Biotechnol Adv 16(3):581-608.
Seibel MM. 1999. The role of nutrition and nutritional supplements in women''s health. Fertility Sterility 72: 579-591.
Setchell KD. 1998. Phytoestrogens:the biochemistry, physiology, and implications for human health of soy isoflavones. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68(6 Suppl):1333-46S.
Sfakianos J, Coward L, Kirk M , Barnes S. 1997. Intestinal uptake and biliary excretion of the isoflavone genistein in rats. J Nutr 127:1260-1268.
Sheih IC, Wu HY, Lai YJ, Lin CF. 2000. Preparation of high free radical scavenging temp by a newly isolated Rhizopus sp. R-69 from Indonesia. Food Sci Agri Chem. 2(1):35-40.
Shun K, Wei LS, Steinberg MP, Nelson AI, Hymowitz T. 1976. Extraction if oligosaccharides during cooking of whole soybeans. J Food Sci 41:361-364.
Sindhu SC, Khetarpaul N. 2001. Probiotic fermentation of indigenous food mixture effect on antinutritents and digestibility of starch and protein. J Food Compos Anal 14:601-609.
Sirtori CR, Lovati MR. 2001. Soy proteins and cardiovascular disease. Current Atherosclerosis Reports 3:47-53.
Smith AK, Circle SJ. 1972. Vol. 1 Proteins. In: Soybeans: Chemistryand Technology. Westport, Connecticut: The AVI Publishing Company, Inc. pp.1-26.
Smith KJ, Huyser W. 1987. World distribution and significance of soybean. In: Wilcox JR. ed. Soybeans: improvement, production and uses, 2nd edn. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, pp.1-22.
Sperti GS. 1971. Probiotics. West Point, CT: Avi Publishing Co.
Sullivan A, Nord CE. 2002. The place of probiotics in human intestinal infections. Int J Antimicrob Agents 20:313-319.
Thananunkul D, Tanaka M, Chichester CO, Lee TC. 1976. Degradation of raffinose and stachyose in soybean milk byα-galactosidase from Mortierella vinacea. Entrapment of α-galactosidase within polyacrylamide gel. J Food Sci 41:173-175.
Tomioka H, Sato K, Saito H. 1992. The protective activity of immunostimulants against Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice. J Med Microbiol 36:112-116.
Tsangalis D, Ashton JF, Mcgill AEJ, Shah NP. 2002. Enzymic transformation of isoflavone phytoestrogens in soymilk by ��-glucosidase-producing bifidobacteria. J Food Sci 67(8):3104-3113.
Tsukamoto C, Shimada S, Igita K, Kudou S, Kokubun M, Okubo K, Kitamura K. 1995. Factors affecting isoflavone content in soybean seeds: changes in isoflavones, saponins, and composition of fatty acids at different temperatures during seed development. J Agric Food Chem 43:1184-1192.
Wang C, Ma Q, Pagadala S, Sherrard MS, Kishnan PG. 1998. Changes of isoflavones during processing of soy protein isolates. JAOCS 75(3):337-341.
Wang HJ, Murphy PA. 1994a. Isoflavone content in commercial soybean foods. J Agric Food Chem 42:1666-1673.
Wang HJ, Murphy PA. 1994b. Isoflavone composition of American and Japanese soybeans in Iowa: Effects of variety, crop year aid location. J Agric Food Chem 42:1674-1677.
Wang HJ, Murphy PA. 1996. Mass balance study of isoflavones during soybean processing. J Agric Food Chem. 44(8):2377-2383.
Wang YC, Yu RC, Chou CC. 2002. Growth and survival of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria during the fermentation and storage of cultured soymilk drinks. Food Microbiol. 19(5):501-508.
Wang YC, Yu RC, Chou CC. 2004. Viability of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in fermented soymilk after drying, subsequent rehydration and storage. Int J Food Microbiol 93:209-217.
Wang YC, Yu RC, Yang HY, Chou CC. 2003. Sugar and acid contents in soymilk fermented with lactic acid bacteria alone or simultaneously with bifidobacteria. Food Microbiol 20: 333-338.
Washburn, SA, Burk GL, Morgen TM. 1995. 3nd Int. Conf. on Phytoestrogens, Little rock AR.
Wei H, Wei L, Frankel K, Bowen R, Barnes S. 1993. Inhibition of tumor promoter-induced hydrogen peroxide formation in vitro and in vivo by genistein. Nutr Cancer 20:1-12.
Weidenborner M, Hindorf H, Jha HC, Tsot-sonos P, Egge H. 1990. Antifungal activity of isoflavonoids in different reduced stages on Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. Phytochemistry 29:801-803.
Welling PG. 1986. First-pass metabolism, enterohepatic circulation, and physicochemical factors affecting absorption. In: Weklling PG editor, American Chemical Society, Washing-ton, DC. Pharmacokinetics-Processes and Mathematics pp. 35-44.
West LG, Birac PM, Pratt DE. 1978. Separation of the isomeric isoflavones from soybeans by high-performance liquid chromatography J Chromatogr 150:266-268.
Winter T, Moore LH, Dowell VR, Bojjenheuser VD. 1989. C-ring cleavage of flavonoids by human intestinal bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 55:1203-1208.
Wolf WJ. 1970. Soy proteins:their functional, chemical, physical properties. J Agric Food Chem 18:969-976.
Wolf WJ. 1972. Purification and properties of the proteins. In: Smith AK, Circle SJ, Avi Pubilshing Co, editors. Soybean: Chemistry and technology Chapter 4.
Wollowski I, Rechkemmer G, Pool-Zobel BL. 2001. Protective role of probiotics and prebiotics in colon cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 73: 451S-455S.
Xu X, Harris KS, Wang HJ, Murphy PA, Hendrich S. 1995. Bioavailability of soybean isoflavones depends upon gut microflora in women. J Nutr 125:2307-15.
Yamashita Y, Kawada S, Nakano H. 1990. Induction of mammalian topoisomerase II dependent DNA cleavage by nonintercalative flavonoids, genistein and orobol. Biochemical Pharmacology 39:737-44.
Yin F, Giuliano AE, van Herle AJ. 1999. Growth inhibitory effects of flavonoids in human thyroid cancer cell lines. Thyroid 9: 369-376.
Yoon HS, Moon SC, Kim ND, Park BS, Jeong MH, Yoo YH. 2000. Genistein induces apoptosis of RPE-J cells by opening mitochondrial PTP. Biochemical Biophysical Research Communications 276:151-6.
Yu J, Cheng Y, Xie L, Zhang R. 1999. Effects of genistein and daidzein on membrane characteristics of HCT cells. Nutr Cancer 33:100-4.
Zubillaga M, Weill R, Postaire E, Goldman C, Caro R, Boccio J. 2001. Effect of probiotics and functional foods and their use in different diseases. Nutr Res 21:569-579.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔