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研究生:曾心瑩
研究生(外文):Hsin-Ying Tseng
論文名稱:東海南部大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素之組成及特性研究
論文名稱(外文):Characterization of Trace Element Composition in Marine Aerosols over the Southern East China Sea
指導教授:林斐然林斐然引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:海洋研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2004
畢業學年度:92
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:可交換相大氣懸浮微粒物種分析晶格相萃取
外文關鍵詞:aerosol
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本研究以感應耦合電漿發射光譜儀分析了採自東海南部彭佳嶼島上的大氣懸浮微粒標本,標本採集的時間為2001年一月到2002年七月。這些樣本分別進行元素的總量分析、元素的物種分析及元素在海水中的溶解度測定,分析的元素包括Al、Fe、Na、Mg、K、Ca、Sr、Ba、Sc、Ti、V、Mn、Co、Cr、Ni、Cu、Zn、Cd和Pb等19個元素。
研究結果顯示,東海南部大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素的濃度呈現明顯的季節性變化;其中以春、冬兩季濃度較高,夏季濃度較低。大氣懸浮微粒中成分濃度的變化,反映出大氣物質之來源、強度以及氣象狀況的改變。大氣中最主要的成分來源是由氣流自亞洲大陸帶出的地殼及污染物質,以及由海水循環上來的海鹽成分,其中陸源物質的輸入主要是發生於東北季風盛行的春、冬兩季,沙塵暴入侵在此過程中扮演相當重要的角色,而海鹽成分則是就近從海水中濺起,它穩定地供應此處的大氣,其與陸源成分在大氣中呈現季節性互為消長的分佈趨勢。元素來源的鑑別結果顯示大氣中的Al、Fe、Mn、Sc、Ti、Ba和Co主要為地殼源;Na和Mg主要為海水源;Cr、Ni、V、Cu、Zn、Pb和Cd主要為污染源,Ca和Sr兼具地殼及海水源,K則兼具地殼、海水及污染三種來源。
在本研究期間,一共偵測到20次左右的沙塵暴入侵,其中2001和2002年各約十次左右。沙塵暴的入侵對大氣成份的影響相當大,其入侵季節主要集中在春季,根據大氣懸浮微粒中Fe/Al比值與Al濃度之對應比較,吾人可以很明確地界定出沙塵暴的發生,當有明顯的沙塵暴入侵時,大氣懸浮微粒中Al的濃度皆普遍高於2μg/m3,而Fe/Al比值則接近0.5。
大氣懸浮微粒中元素物種之分析結果顯示,污染性元素Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd、Mn和Co等主要分佈在較易隨環境之變異而產生變化的可交換相;相對的地殼源元素Al和Fe則主要分佈於穩定的晶格相中。此反映出大氣中元素來源屬性之不同,即污染性元素大多曾經由高溫作用而逸散至大氣中,之後靠凝結或吸附等作用而結合至顆粒的表面,因此很容易被萃取出來;反觀地殼源元素(如Al和Fe),則大多存在於礦物晶格中,因此不易被萃取出。此一特性也反映於元素在海水中的溶解度研究上,即結合在可交換相比例較高的污染性元素,其在海水中溶出比例也比較高;而結合在晶格相比例較高的地殼源元素,其在海水中的溶出比例則相當低,僅2 ~ 3 %而已。
本研究所估算出的大氣沉降通量在地殼源元素方面,大致和黃海及地中海相當;在污染性元素方面,則比北海及地中海低,但和北太平洋相比則至少高出10倍以上。


摘要…………………………………………………………….………Ⅰ
目錄……………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………Ⅴ
表目錄…………………………………………………………………ⅥI
一、前 言………………………………………………………………1
1-1 研究背景……………………………………………………1
1-2 研究目的……………………………………………………4
二、 研究方法……………………………………………………5
2-1 標本的採集………………………………………………………5
2-2 標本的一般性處理………………………………………………6
2-3 標本的化學處理……………………………………………6
2-3.1 標本的全消化處理………………………………………6
2-3.2元素的物種分析…………………………………………7
2-3.3元素在海水中的溶解度測定……………………………9
2-4 儀器的分析…………………………………………………9
三、 結果與討論…………………………………………………12
3-1 大氣懸浮微粒中各元素的濃度及時序變化…………….…12
3-2 各元素月平均濃度的變化………………………………….14
3-3元素間的相關性………………………………………….…..21
3-4 主成分分析………………………………………………….23
3-5 元素來源的鑑別…………………………………………….26
3-6 污染源元素的探討………………………………………….31
3-6.1 Ni、Cr及V……………………………………………..33
3-6.2 Cu、Zn、Cd及Pb…………………………………….34
3-7 2001及2002年沙暴事件之探討…………………………36
3-7.1 沙塵暴物質的驗證……………………………………38
3-7.2 沙塵暴事件對Na來源之影響…………………….…41
3-8季風的傳送對大氣中金屬元素分佈之影響……….……..…41
3-9沈降通量的估算………………………………………………44
3-10元素的物種及元素在海水中溶解度研究………………….47
3-10.1 金屬元素的物種………………………………….…48
3-10.2 金屬元素在海水中的溶解度…………………………50
3-10.3 元素在海水中的溶解度與元素物種之關係…………55
四、 結論…………………………………………………………59
五、 致謝…………………………………………………………61
六、 參考文獻…………………………………………………..62
七、 附錄一…………………………………………………………71
八、 附錄二………………………………………………………76
九、 附錄三………………………………………………………82


圖目錄
圖一、三階段萃取流程及使用的試劑…………………………………8
圖二、Fe、Sc、Ti對Al的相關作圖………………………………...11
圖三、大氣懸浮微粒中Al濃度的時序變化………………………….15
圖四、大氣懸浮微粒中Na濃度的時序變化………………………...16
圖五、大氣懸浮微粒中Pb濃度的時序變化………………………...17
圖六、東海南部大氣懸浮微粒中各元素的月平均濃度變化…………18
圖七、金屬元素及氣象因子經主成分分析所得的五個主因子……..25
圖八、大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素的平均地殼富集值及海水富集值…28
圖九、懸浮微粒中Mg、 Ca、 Sr之地殼源及海水源所佔比例
的月變化趨勢…………………………………………………..30
圖十、懸浮微粒中K之地殼源、海水源及污染源所佔比例的月
變化趨勢………………………………………………………..32
圖十一、Ni和Cr的相關圖…………………………………………….33
圖十二、Cu、Zn、Cd與Pb的相關圖………………………………35
圖十三、發生沙塵暴期間的衛星地面天氣觀測圖…………………..37
圖十四、氣流軌跡回推圖(四月七日04時~四月九日00時)…………39
圖十五、利用Al濃度與Fe/Al比值鑑別沙塵暴事件………...……..40
圖十六、Al濃度對Nasea-salt/Natotal值的時序變化圖……………42
圖十七、金屬元素在南、北風向族群中之濃度比值(N/S)…………43
圖十八、 北風來源及南風來源對各元素的貢獻度所佔的比例.…..44
圖十九、大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素之物種分佈……………………..51
圖二十、大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素在海水中的溶解度和Al濃度
之關係圖………………………………………………………………53

圖二十一、大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素的EFcrust值及其在海水中溶解
度的相關圖…………………………………………………..56
圖二十二、大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素在可交換相及海水中溶出比
例之比較…………………………………………………..…57

表目錄
表一、各元素的回收率及精確度……………………………………..10
表二、東海南部大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素之平均濃度及濃度範圍…13
表三、東海南部大氣懸浮微粒中各元素的相關係數………………..22
表四、各海域中大氣懸浮微粒通量之比較…………………………..46
表五、大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素物種分析之結果….……………….49
表六、大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素在海水中的溶解度………………..52
表七、大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素在海水中的溶解度比較…………..54


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中文部分
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